Journal of Languages and Translation

مجلة اللغات و الترجمة


The Journal of Languages and Translation is an international biannual, peer reviewed Journal issued by the Laboratory of Information and Communication Technologies in the Teaching of Foreign Languages and Translation (TICELET), Faculty of Foreign Languages, Hassiba Ben Bouali University of Chlef. The Journal of Languages and Translation publishes original high-quality reporting research that is empirically and/or theoretically based in the fields of Languages and Translation Studies in English, French and Arabic and Spanish. مجلة “اللغات و الترجمة” مجلة علمية دولية نصف سنوية محكمة، تهتم بنشر البحوث العلمية والدراسات النقدية والتطبيقية في مجال تعليم اللغات الأجنبية والترجمة. تصدر المجلة عن مختبر تكنولوجيات الإعلام و الإتصال في تعليم اللغات والترجمة بكلية اللغات الأجنبية، جامعة حسيبة بن بوعلي بالشلف، بإشراف هيئة تحكيم مشكلة من أساتذة مختصين في المجال من داخل الوطن و خارجه. تستقبل المجلة البحوث والدراسات والمقالات العلمية المتخصصة باللغات العربية والإنجليزية والفرنسية والإسبانية.


Call for papers Journal of Languages & Translation (Volume 4 Issue 01 /2024)

The journal ‘languages & translation’ is a peer-reviewed, open access and biannual journal publishing high-quality and original research in English, Arabic, French and Spanish. It covers the latest developments in the fields of linguistics, literature and translation. The journal welcomes original, theoretical and practical submissions in the form of original research articles to be published in January 2024.

We seek contributions from people, individually or collectively, from different countries and different backgrounds, who are engaged in languages and translation research inside or outside formal educational institutions. We welcome a variety of approaches and resources through the whole range of disciplines: papers geared toward action-oriented research as well as those which address theoretical methodological issues.


Topics of interest include but are not limited to:

Applied Linguistics, Conversational Analysis, Corpus Linguistics, Descriptive Linguistics, Phonetics and Phonology, Pragmatics, Psycholinguistics, Second Language Acquisition, Semantics, Sociolinguistics, Syntax, Discourse Studies, Bilingualism, Computer-assisted language learning/teaching, Curriculum innovation and evaluation, English for Specific/Academic Purposes, Teaching Methodologies in Language Classrooms, the use of Technology in Language learning and Teaching, Using English Literature for the Teaching of English, Cross-Cultural Communication, Intercultural Communication, Language Teaching and Cultural Communication, Gender Studies, Language Teaching, Language Technology, CALL, English Language Teaching/Learning, Assessment in second/foreign language teaching and learning, Assessment in a Technology-Enabled Language Learning Class, World Literature, American Literature, English Literature, Contemporary literature, Comparative literature, Interdisciplinary Approaches in Literature, Literary criticism, Literature and history, Literature and Media, World languages & literature, Interpreting Studies, Translation in Literature, Translation Studies, Neural Machine Translation and Deep Learning.




Authors can submit their manuscripts using the Journal  link:


Deadline for submission 30/10/2023

Publication date:01/01/2024









Some Teaching Tips for Overcoming Challenges and conducting an Effective Online Assessment in Algerian Universities

هادي خيرة, 

Résumé: Abstract In response to the corona virus COVID-19 pandemic, Algerian university rapidly moved from traditional to online assessment. Assessing EFL students in an online environment without preparation leads to several challenges for teachers and students. The lack or limited technical skills, slow and unreliable internet connectivity, teachers’ different levels in online language assessment literacy, differences in students’ levels in digital literacy, problems in grading and feedback, academic dishonesty and misconduct, are the main challenges. The objective of this research is to explore challenges hindering the process of online assessment at university, and providing suggestions and some teaching tips for the sake of overcoming these barriers and establishing effective online assessment. There is an urgent need to develop teachers’ online language assessment literacy. The attendance of specialized language assessment and testing conferences is beneficial for teachers. Developing students’ digital literacy is fundamental in enhancing online assessment. One of the basic roles attributed to the language teacher is raising students’ awareness of the unethical acts such as e cheating and plagiarism. Teachers need to receive in-service training focusing on online language assessment literacy. Online assessment in Algerian universities is still in its first steps, the above-mentioned challenges should be surmounted for the sake of putting remote assessment in its right path.

Mots clés: Challenges ; effective ; online assessment ; teaching tips ; University

The Impact of the Teachers’ Pandemic –Related Technological Experiences on the Post-Corona Stage

نصبه أسماء, 

Résumé: During the post Corona pandemic era, the focus of educational debate is rather on how to enlarge the scope of utilizing technology in education because of the successful role it played in saving the educational process. The present study seeks to investigate the benefits derived from the teacher’s experiences about integrating technology in the teaching process. A semi structured interview was conducted with a number of eight (08) teachers of English at the department of English in El Oued university during September 2022. Results reveal that the teachers owe a gratitude to the online and blended learning witnessed during the pandemic. They confirmed that technology has become an integral part of education. This reality was proved and strengthened after experiencing and integrating technology in teaching. The teachers also stated that relying on e-learning during Corona period was the reason for learning several new technological skills and refining old skills. They also added that thanks to technology, some evaluation processes have become more efficient and faster. According to them it was a period of increasing familiarity with new digital tools. Teachers also signaled that they were engaged in different Continuous Professional Development (CPD) modes to update their teaching methods and professional knowledge. It was a self- directed choice to gain expertise that enables them to master new competencies.

Mots clés: Teaching process ; Technological skills ; Technology Integration

Technology as a Mediator between the Teacher and the Learner in Fostering Educational Interaction

زورز ليلى, 

Résumé: The relationship between the teacher and learner has always been an issue under investigation for a plethora of reasons, most important of which is the centrality of this relation in the teaching/learning process. Teachers’ characteristics and learners’ expectations are essential conditions for positive teacher-learner relations. This reciprocal relationship, known as interaction, can take a number of forms, and is fulfilled via various ways. EFL research greatly emphasizes the advantages of all types of educational interaction and more specifically teacher-student interaction. The traditional form of the latter is classroom interaction which takes place face-to-face. However, the change that is taking place in our world has equally affected our EFL classrooms including the pedagogical practices as well as the materials and media used in teaching. The use of technology has recently become omnipresent in EFL classrooms, and it is used by both teachers and learners. Connecting with their teachers via technology using smart phones or computers, learners can be more engaged in learning and ready for collaboration and positive interaction. This paper aims to investigate EFL teachers’ awareness towards incorporating technology for interactional purposes relying on the questionnaire as a means of research. The findings reveal teachers’ support and positive attitudes towards the importance of technology for EFL teaching and learning.

Mots clés: classroom interaction ; collaboration ; teacher-leaner relations ; teaching ; technology ; learning

The Use of Online Self-Reflection to Teach Writing: The Case of Second Year ENSC Students

حناش مريم, 

Résumé: The introduction of online learning in the last two years offered learners the chance to develop their autonomy and compelled teachers to offer self-study activities that develop learners’ metacognition. One practice that allows students to take ownership of their learning is reflective writing. A sample of 27 students from the second year class of the Department of English at the ENSC were required to submit via email post-writing reflective journals wherein they describe, analyse, and evaluate their writing experience. This study analyses the content of the students’ self-reflection. It seeks to answer the following research questions: (1) To what extent are the students able to verbalize their thoughts about their writing processes and products? (2) How is this online practice beneficial for the students? To answer these questions, the content of the reflective reports has been quantitatively and qualitatively analysed in addition to the teacher’s experience and insight from this experience. The results showed that the students generated rich and varied content about their writing and developed their reflective ability throughout the year. It improved their metacognitive knowledge and their self-evaluation skills. Besides, sharing the reflective reports allowed students to feel closer to their teachers which relieved their fear from writing.

Mots clés: Metacognition ; Online Learning ; Reflective Writing ; Self-Evaluation ; Writing Process

Perspectives about U-Learning in the Oral Expression Class: Facts and Fiction

بوغواص لمياء, 

Résumé: Parmi les quatre compétences linguistiques, la maîtrise du code orale apparaît comme la plus importante à maîtriser, non seulement pour des fins éducatives mais aussi pour des aspirations extra-académiques. Pouvoir communiquer est une compétence qui nécessite une formation complète et une préparation adéquate. Ainsi, pouvoir s’exprimer pleinement et clairement ses pensées, surtout devant une masse, est devenu un domaine d'intérêt des formateurs en développement personnel. Dans le contexte spécifique de la langue Anglaise, l'amélioration de la maîtrise de l'expression orale des étudiants a toujours fait partie de la formation. Pareillement, les développements technologiques rapides ont facilité le passage vers la dépendance sur la matière authentique de l’enseignement de la langue. Les laboratoires de langues sont censés être une miniature de la plus grande communauté de la langue étrangère, donc s'ils étaient davantage consolidés avec une connexion Internet ; ils seront dans la perspective de faciliter l'enseignement des compétences orales. La technologie est le moyen par lequel l'accès aux instances authentiques de la langue étrangères peut être réalisé. Cette étude vise à vérifier les avantages et les inconvénients de combiner les applications basées sur la technologie avec les réalités de la classe ; elle s'appuie sur l'utilisation d'une échelle de Likert avec les étudiants et d'un entretien avec les enseignants. Les résultats de l'entretien ont prouvé que les enseignants de l’Anglais sont totalement conscients de la vitalité de mélanger l'U-Learning avec l'enseignement traditionnel en classe pour une meilleure amélioration de la qualité de la compétence orale. Cependant, ils ont expliqué qu'il s'agissait encore de théorie plutôt que de pratique réelle en raison d'un ensemble des inconvénients. L'échelle des élèves a montré que ces derniers sont prêts à exploiter les outils technologiques pour améliorer leurs compétences en expression orale. Cela a montré aussi qu'ils s'appuyaient sur certaines applications mais ils ont déclaré qu'ils manquaient de persévérance, dit très utile pour atteindre les objectifs requis.

Mots clés: compténces orales ; Ressources web ; U-learning

Adapting to the Transformation of Education: New Challenges for Teachers

كياس محمد,  كياس نادية, 

Résumé: It is increasingly evident to the educational community today that technology is rapidly transforming Education and learning. Ubiquitously present, the digital criterion is inevitably and surely making learning and teaching move to a next step never experienced before. Moreover, the COVID19 disruption has contributed to the acceleration of this transformation that moved the educational and learning community into new virtual environments. And while good practice is necessary for an appropriate transition to the digital transformation era, it will require time, motivation, technology tools and infrastructures. It will also need knowledge, skills, appropriate pedagogical choices, support and a real mind-set and culture. Education needs to adapt, but adaptation can only be possible if it relies on both teachers’ efforts towards learning sustainability and an adequate use of technology. Many questions come, therefore, to impose themselves in this new context as to: What challenges are facing teachers today? What competencies need to be developed by teachers and learners to be able to function appropriately and efficiently in order to thrive successfully in this era of digital learning? How can teachers manage their contents and pedagogy to respond to their learners’ needs as far as skills and knowledge development, matched to a responsible and informed use of virtual spaces for learning? These questions will be developed and discussed in the frame of this paper.

Mots clés: Challenges for teachers ; Digital learning ; Education Transformation ; Global challenges

Metaphor Teaching and Online Learning: Practical Strategies

Belkhir Sadia, 

Résumé: Abstract Metaphor is ubiquitous in everyday language. From a cognitive linguistic view, metaphor is a matter of cognition more than it is of language (Lakoff and Johnson 1980, Kövecses 2002). Actually, it is an aspect that highly features educational discourse (Cameron 2003), which is so often difficult to interpret by non-native speakers of language (Boers and Demecheleer 2001; Littlemore 2003; Boers 2003; Littlemore and Low 2006, Belkhir 2020). This highlights its importance in English language teaching in higher education contexts, such as Mouloud Mammeri University, in Tizi-Ouzou. Unfortunately, this issue has not received enough attention among scholars, in the current context. The present research aims to (i) reveal why it is important to teach metaphor to advanced learners of English, (ii) suggest some practical strategies for teachers, which could be implemented via up-to-date tools, such as the internet (online dictionaries, hyper corpora, among others), and (iii) exemplify how metaphor identification procedure is applied to educational and scientific texts. This is to help develop EFL teaching and learning in the present context.

Mots clés: Cognitive Linguistics ; educational discourse ; metaphor ; online learning ; strategies

Virtual Classes and EFL Students’ Linguistic Performance; Case Study of Engineering Students at Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University

محمود منتصر, 

Résumé: This study identified the perceptions, attitudes, and difficulties that university students encountered to better understand how EFL virtual classrooms affected their language performance. In order to test the study's hypotheses, 124 engineering college students were given a three-section questionnaire comprising 29 statements, and 15 of them were also interviewed. All participants signed up for the English-language online writing composition course. The study's findings indicate that the participants had varying opinions about how virtual EFL classes affected the improvement of their linguistic ability. Additionally, the results showed that students only partially preferred this method of learning because they had to deal with a variety of concerns, including technological difficulties, inadequate instruction and training, financial commitments, workload pressure, and limited access to the internet. In order to properly employ virtual courses in the teaching of EFL, it is strongly advised that the aforementioned issues be fixed. This case study contributes to the body of research by focusing on a situation where there is a dearth of empirical data regarding EFL learners' perceptions of English learning. To understand why this disparity evolved, additional studies in this area are needed.

Mots clés: challenges of online learning ; virtual classes ; students' attitude ; linguistic performance ; EFL learning

Correlates Conducive to Quality Education in English Language Education

Bemmoussat Nabil Djawad,  Bemmoussat Smail, 

Résumé: Abstract The post-war period witnessed an increased demand for education worldwide. With compulsory education, children are offered more chances to become functionally literate and behave as world citizens. Additionally, since the advent of globalization in the late 20th century, the need for better education which would respond positively to the demands of the phenomenon has been accentuated, not least English Language Education, (hereafter ELE). Admittedly, English is becoming a key factor in the development of the nations globally and the information technology has shortened the distance between nations. This urge has given way to the notion of ‘high-quality education’; this has created a new goal for education. Meritocracy has become the standard model in virtually all parts of the world. This quality-oriented dimension would lead us to assert that now more than ever a good working knowledge of Shakespeare’s language has become not only a must-have skill, but a sine qua non condition for outer and expanding circle countries’ economic development, technological advancement and commercial expansion, to use Kachru’s terms. Keywords:ELE, globalization, high-quality education

Mots clés: ELE ; globalization ; high-quality education

Technology Integration in Legal Education

Hennaoui Leila, 

Résumé: In the post-pandemic era, law faculties are still pushing to adopt online teaching methodologies, in integrating technology into Legal Education, they must consider adapting the technologies (especially of distance learning) to the pedagogical specificities of law studies. In this sense, this paper aims to discuss the pedagogical practices considered appropriate to digital legal studies. In that regard ‘technological tools' efficiency depends on the attitude of the law teachers. Though Algerian Law faculties (as elsewhere in developing countries) struggle to acquire basic legal technology skills and equipment. This paper accepts that technology will be part of the future pedagogical practices of the teaching of law and that the ‘online’ learning-teaching platforms will support activities for face-to-face instruction. Against this background, the paper will try to draw lessons from already existing relevant experiences in developed countries, by exploring the application of learning theories in teaching law online. And provides an overview of some of the learning technologies that have gained prominence in law schools in recent years, highlighting the need for law academics to improve their digital literacy levels.

Mots clés: Law professors ; learning theories ; integration ; technology ; digital literacy

Nature du Verbe Imperfectif en Arabe Standard

Moumni Jaouad, 

Résumé: Cet article étudie l'aspect nominal du verbe imperfectif en arabe standard. Le présent article montre explicitement que cette forme du verbe partage les mêmes propriétés syntaxiques et distributionnelles que le nom. Une telle hypothèse a été suggérée par certains linguistes (voir Benmamoun (1992), Kayne (1993) et El Khatabi (1996). Contrairement au verbe perfectif, le verbe imperfectif, comme le nom, est dépourvu de caractéristique temporelle. Le trait T est vérifié par une tête X° (NEG, Modal, Aux, V…) qui transfère cette caractéristique à l'ensemble de la phrase. Dans ce cas, le verbe imperfectif enchâssé, n'étant pas encodé pour T ; il n'est donc pas nécessaire de vérifier ses caractéristiques par s'élevant à T°. Le verbe imperfectif se comporte comme un nom (DP) dans le sens où il peut suivre un auxiliaire, ce qui n'est pas le cas du verbe perfectif. Nous porterons notre attention particulièrement sur le statut nominal du verbe imperfectif en Arabe Standard.

Mots clés: temps référentiel/anaphorique ; accord ; DP ; verbe perfectif ; verbe imperfectif.

Mélancolie et maladie mystérieuse dans La Chute de la maison Usher d’Edgar Allan Poe

دردور وردة, 

Résumé: Cet article propose une lecture d’un conte fantastique issu de la littérature américaine. Il s’agit de The Fall of the House of Usher (1839) d’Edgar Allan Poe, un récit traduit par le poète français Charles Baudelaire en 1859. C’est donc la traduction française qui est l’objet d’étude de la présente recherche. L’intérêt de cet article est de traiter une double thématique propre aux récits d’Edgar Allan Poe, à savoir la mélancolie et la maladie. L’intérêt en est de proposer des interprétations quant aux phénomènes étranges dans La Chute de la maison Usher, et que l’on rapproche à l’atmosphère mélancolique de l’espace décrit dans le récit, il s’agit également de s’interroger sur les représentations de l’état maladif des personnages. Notre recherche se réfère aux études réalisées par des spécialistes de Poe à l’instar de Marie Bonaparte (1958), Henri Justin (1991) et Marc Amfreville (2013). Les interprétations proposées dans cet article sont à la fois psychanalytiques et biographiques : la symbolique de l’espace, en l’occurrence la maison Usher, ainsi que l’influence des éléments biographiques (notamment les événements tragiques) sur l’écriture de Poe.

Mots clés: mélancolie ; maladie ; fantastique ; narrateur ; espace

Le discours historique comme témoignage de la violence : manuel scolaire de la 3e année moyenne

طالبي سيدي محمد,  بن زلماط عبد القادر, 

Résumé: Le présent article s’attèle à mettre en exergue le vocabulaire ayant trait au discours de la violence à travers le récit historique de témoignage. À travers le manuel scolaire de la 3e année moyenne, nous tenterons de faire un inventaire de textes de ce genre de discours, en axant notre analyse sur un texte historique dont le vocabulaire dépeint la véritable souffrance du peuple algérien de la répression du colonialisme français. L’objectif de cette analyse est d’essayer de comprendre le rôle de l’exploitation du discours de la violence comme témoignage dans la conscientisation de l’apprenant de la 3e année moyenne. L’analyse du texte historique nous a révélé que ce genre de discours permet à l’apprenant de FLE de mieux s’imprégner de son histoire et de son identité nationale.

Mots clés: manuel scolaire ; récit historique ; violence ; souffrance ; témoignage

Du décodage de l’ironie dans Zadig de Voltaire

Ndiaye Abdou, 

Résumé: L’œuvre de Voltaire est immense et contient tellement d’objets linguistiques que cela autorise sa revisite dans le champ littéraire. En effet, l’auteur a investi et utilisé plusieurs styles : l’humour, la bouffonnerie, la plaisanterie, le comique de situation, la satire, le burlesque, l’anecdote mais surtout l’ironie. Dans le Dictionnaire des littératures de langue française (Organisé par BEAUMARCHAIS, COUTY et REY) on lit: « L’ironie depuis Voltaire est en soi voltairienne ». C’est pour dire que non seulement l’ironie est omniprésente chez cet auteur mais aussi c’est lui qui lui a donné une empreinte indélébile. L’ironie est définie par Philippe Hamon (1986 : 123) comme « …une procédure d’énonciation complexe (débrayée-embrayée) dans laquelle un destinateur de discours cherche à transmettre à un destinataire un message implicite dont le sens est différent de celui du message explicitement manifesté. » Cela demande un investissement particulier du lecteur qui devra éviter de lire le texte comme il le ferait avec un autre texte. Parmi les nombreuses œuvres de Voltaire Zadig est sans doute celle qui est beaucoup plus chargée de discours ironiques cachés. Cet article est une étude critique des différentes manifestations de l’ironie et de la façon dont il faut la décoder. Voltaire's work is immense and contains so many linguistic objects that it allows it to be revisited in the literary field. Indeed, the author has invested and used several styles: humor, buffoonery, jokes, situation comedy, satire, burlesque, anecdote but above all irony. In the Dictionary of French Language Literature (Organized by BEAUMARCHAIS, COUTY and REY) we read: “Irony since Voltaire is in itself Voltairean”. This is to say that not only irony is omnipresent in this author but also it is he who gave him an indelible imprint. Irony is defined by Philippe Hamon (1986: 123) as “…a complex enunciation procedure (disengaged-engaged) in which a speaker of discourse seeks to transmit to a recipient an implicit message whose meaning is different from that of the explicitly manifested message. This requires a particular investment from the reader who will have to avoid reading the text as he would with another text. Among the many works of Voltaire Zadig is undoubtedly the one that is much more loaded with hidden ironic discourses. This article is a critical study of the different manifestations of irony and how to decode it.

Mots clés: arme de combat ; critique ; ironie ; satire ; visage de l'ironie ; Combat weapon ; criticism, ; irony ; satirefaces of irony

Investigating EFL Saudi Students’ Beliefs on Vocabulary Learning Strategies

Al Towity Abdulrahman, 

Résumé: Abstract The present study was conducted to investigate the beliefs of EFL Saudi students on vocabulary learning strategies. It addresses the need of a concrete understanding of the extent to which students value and apply strategies to learn vocabulary. The sample consisted of 196 students from the University College of Aldayer - Jazan University - who responded to the questionnaire. The data for the study was obtained through two sections of 28 items which were sent to the students via internet. Items of the questionnaire were developed from relevant literature (Oxford, 1990: 277-300; Li, X., 2005: 315-324; Sinhaneti and Kyaw, 2012: 1002-1003; Gu & Johnson, 1996:674-679). The findings pointed out that “Applying Images & Sounds” (AIS) and “Reviewing” (RW) strategies were reported the most preferable by the subjects of study. “Rote Learning” (RL) and “Creating Mental Linkage” (CML) strategies, respectively, were valued less in the vocabulary learning process. Students believe that rote learning is still an effective way of learning vocabulary, but not the best. This study also revealed that the relationship between beliefs and strategy use was positive and consistent. It will offer guidance to EFL teachers/researchers who are interested in EFL Saudi students’ choice and use of language learning strategies.

Mots clés: vocabulary learning strategies ; Saudi students ; Rote Learning (RL) ; Creating Mental Linkage (CML) ; Images & Sounds (AIS) and Reviewing (RW) ; EFL (English as a foreign language)

L'interférence phonétique entre L2 et L3 en cycle qualifiant: approche interlingue

Badreddine El-kacimi,  Imad El-kacimi, 

Résumé: Le système éducatif marocain favorise le français à tous les niveaux, tandis que l'anglais n'est enseigné que pendant trois ans au cours du cycle de qualification, créant ainsi une disparité préjudiciable dans l'apprentissage de cette langue étrangère. Les apprenants ont souvent une prononciation anglaise avec un accent français en raison de l'interférence phonétique. Les difficultés de prononciation sont exacerbées par des facteurs socio-psychologiques tels que le manque de motivation et un système éducatif axé sur la quantité plutôt que sur la qualité. Les enseignants jouent également un rôle crucial dans l'amélioration de l'apprentissage en abordant ces défis et en gérant les classes de manière appropriée. Les étudiants qui commettent des erreurs de prononciation peuvent être ridiculisés par leurs pairs, ce qui entraîne une baisse de l'estime de soi et un désintérêt pour les activités scolaires. Une attention particulière devrait être accordée à la formation des enseignants et à la création d'un environnement d'apprentissage positif pour promouvoir une meilleure maîtrise de l'anglais et améliorer les performances des étudiants.

Mots clés: ALE, FLE, intervention pédagogique, interférence phonétique, observation.

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