Journal of Languages and Translation

مجلة اللغات و الترجمة

Description

 

The Journal of Languages & Translation ( ISSN:2716-9359 EISSN:2773-3505 ) is an open-access peer-reviewed international biannual journal issued by the Laboratory of Information and Communication Technologies in the Teaching of Foreign Languages and Translation (TICELET), Faculty of Foreign Languages, Hassiba Ben Bouali University of Chlef, Algeria, since January 2021.

The Journal of Languages & Translation is a distinguished journal committed to publishing high-quality and original research in English, Arabic, French, and Spanish. Covering the latest developments in linguistics, literature, and translation. The journal serves as a platform for scholarly exploration and advancement.

Special issues covering topics within the journal's scope will occasionally be published.

- Publication Charges: FREE

- Article Processing Charges (APCs): No

- Submission Charges: No

Website:Link: https://journals.univ-chlef.dz/index.php/jlt


4

Volumes

7

Numéros

93

Articles


Vers une nouvelle lecture de Spleen Baudelairien : l’investissement esthétique de la douleur dans Les Fleurs du Mal et Le Spleen de Paris

Saket Walid, 
2024-05-21

Résumé: Que peut-on encore dire de l’œuvre abondamment lue et relue de Baudelaire ? Une telle question ne devrait ni désarmer ni décevoir un lecteur moderne soucieux de fouiller dans les écrits des classiques afin d’y puiser de nouvelles significations. Cela étant, Les Fleurs du Mal et Le Spleen de Paris sont éminemment fécondes et prometteuses de concepts se prêtant à se lire chaque fois sous une nouvelle perspective. Il s’agit, en effet, d’une œuvre très polysémique et ‘’ouverte’’ au sens que donne Umberto Eco à ce terme. Elle se présente constamment aux lecteurs toute neuve et toute riche transcendant ainsi la temporalité d’une façon fort séduisante. Rien d’étonnant pour une telle œuvre dont les maîtres - mots sont le bizarre et l’excentrique. C’est dans ce sens que le présent travail tente de ré-explorer un concept –clé de la poésie de Baudelaire en l’occurrence celui du Spleen dans le but d’en présenter une nouvelle lecture .Ce concept habituellement chargé de connotations négatives nous a semblé plutôt exprimer la conscience dans le Mal dont fait preuve l’auteur des Fleurs du Mal , constamment hanté par le désir de transgression et de transcendance .

Mots clés: Spleen –Romantisme – transcendance –douleur- beauté moderne


La violence passive en milieu scolaire et extra scolaire

قداوي الزهرة, 
2023-10-10

Résumé: Le présent article a pour but d'explorer un problème social sous-jacent, à savoir la souffrance silencieuse qui afflige nos enfants, adolescents et enseignants dans les salles de classe. Cette souffrance est causée par des pratiques éducatives inadéquates, des parents inconscients ou désintéressés, ainsi qu'une société qui tolère les différents types de violences commises dans les foyers et les établissements scolaires. Cette forme de violence, appelée "violence passive", a un effet dévastateur à court et à long terme sur l'estime de soi et la confiance en soi de l'individu, le poussant soit à se venger de manière active, soit à s'isoler pour souffrir en silence. L'article vise à examiner les différentes formes de violence passive et son impact sur l'individu et son entourage, ainsi qu'à identifier les causes de l'agressivité chez les adolescents. L’analyse des articles scientifiques nous a révélé que la remédiation de certaines pratiques éducatives pourrait aider à contrer la violence en milieu scolaire et à promouvoir la culture de non-violence.

Mots clés: estime de soi ; souffrances ; violence


A Study of Multimodal Communicative Acts in Selected Nollywood Film Advertisement Posters

Nurudeen Monsurat, 
2024-04-17

Résumé: Movie posters employ multiple modes of communication in their display to communicate with the audience. Identifying the modes and the meanings realised through them as projected in most scholarly works on film posters are not sufficient in interpreting the intentional goals of the image designers or advertisers. It is against this backdrop that this article articulates the pragmatic functions of Nollywood film posters’ advertising language (text and image) as a form of language in action and intention in the situational context of users. Eight (8) Nollywood film advertisement posters which were purposively selected were analysed using insights from van Leeuwen’s (2005) theory of multimodal communicative acts and Bach and Harnish’s (1979) speech acts theory. The findings from the analysis reveal that communicative acts of informing, stating, expressing, describing and asserting are frequently demonstrated via visual and verbal modes in the advertisement posters. The less employed multimodal communicative acts are questioning and ordering. These multimodal communicative acts utilised demonstrate the persuasive illocutionary and communicative intentions of Nollywood film advertisers which is primarily aimed at enhancing viewing patronage. The article concludes that the adaptability of Nollywood advertisement posters to the context and situation of users is considered pertinent to the appropriate interpretation of meanings realised from the complex modes of communication employed in them. Les affiches de films utilisent différentes manières de parler aux gens et de leur montrer de quoi parle le film. Les modes et les significations des images et les mots sur une affiche de film ne suffit pas expliquer ce que les gens qui l'ont réalisé veulent que vous pensiez ou ressentiez. Cet article explique comment les mots et les images sur les affiches des films Nollywood fonctionnent ensemble pour dire quelque chose et comment ils sont censés être compris par les personnes qui les voient. Nous avons examiné huit (8) affiches spéciales de films Nollywood qui ont été sélectionnées à dessein et étudié la manière dont elles communiquent avec les gens à l’aide de la théorie des actes de communication multimodaux de van Leeuwen (2005) et de la théorie des actes de parole de Bach et Harnish (1979). Les résultats de l’analyse révèlent que les actes communicatifs d’information, de déclaration, d’expression, de description et d’affirmation sont fréquemment démontrés par des moyens visuels et verbaux dans les affiches publicitaires. Les actes de communication multimodaux les moins utilisés sont le questionnement et font régner l'ordre. Ces actes de communication multimodaux sont utilisés pour démontrer les intentions illocutoires et communicatives persuasives des annonceurs de films de Nollywood, qui visent principalement à augmenter le nombre de spectateurs. L'article conclut que l'adaptabilité des affiches publicitaires de Nollywood au contexte et à la situation des utilisateurs est considérée comme pertinente pour l'interprétation appropriée des significations obtenues à partir des modes de communication complexes qu'elles emploient.

Mots clés: Advertisement ; context ; film posters ; multimodal communicative acts ; Nollywood


Marketing digital y transcreación: Publicidad y localización de la kufiya palestina en Español y en inglés

بكري كوثر, 
2024-03-13

Résumé: Resumen Las múltiples ocasiones que se brindaron para el estudio la traducción y publicidad, han dedicado generosamente su interés en destacar la importancia del parámetro cultural para la transmisión del mismo efecto persuasivo al texto publicitario traducido. (Claude Tatilon,1978 y 1990), (Narváez &García Adela Martínez,1997) (Narváez, Isabel Cómitre, 2004 ,2015), (Antonio Bueno García,2000) (Rodríguez María Cristina Valdés, 2004 y 2016). Sin embargo, el término transcreación o traducción creativa, ha ocupado un lugar muy notable en el ámbito de la publicidad y marketing. Su uso remonta desde que se ha vinculado con la literatura bajo la expresión de “traducción creativa” (Jackson, 2010) . Y está sometido al criterio de la adaptación de un mensaje publicitario de una lengua a otra sin perder su intención, estilo, tono y contexto. De hecho, en este proceso creativo de adaptación, el transcreador se encarga de combinar entre traducción y redacción que además tiene que contar con el copywriter en su propia lengua : es un trabajo con un significado más amplio que la traducción que requiere una elaboración de un briefing con el cliente. Asimismo, la adaptación de un mensaje publicitario a otra lengua está relacionado con una de las estrategias publicitarias: la localización. Así que transcreación y localización cubren un campo multidisciplinario que implica la aplicación de los métodos del marketing digital. En este sentido, cabe indicar que la transcreación (como un método de localización) y el marketing digital, aplicadas en páginas web son dos caras en una moneda puesto que comparten entre otros factores un contenido bastante necesario para hacer llegar una información publicitaria sobre un producto a otras culturas. palabras claves: Transcreación ,páginas web, marketing digital, localización. SUMMARY The multiple occasions that were provided for the study of translation and ad-vertising have generously dedicated their interest in highlighting the importance of the cultural parameter for the transmission of the same persuasive effect to the converted advertising text. (Claude Tatilon,1978 and 1990), (Narváez, Isa-bel Cómitre, 1997), (García Adela Martínez,1997), (Antonio Bueno Gar-cía,2000) (Rodríguez María Cristina Valdés, 2004 and 2016). However, the term transcreation or creative translation has occupied a very notable place in the field of advertising and marketing. Its use dates back to when it has been linked to literature under the expression of “creative translation” (Jackson, 2010). And it is subject to the criterion of adapting an advertising message from one language to another without losing its intention, style, tone and context. In fact, in this creative process of adaptation, the transcreator is in charge of combining translation and writing, which also has to be done by the copywriter in his or her own language: it is a job with a broader meaning than translation, which requires a briefing with the client. Likewise, the adaptation of an advertis-ing message to another language is related to one of the advertising strategies: localization. So transcreation and localization cover a multidisciplinary field that involves the application of digital marketing methods. In this sense, it should be noted that transcreation (as a localization method) and digital marketing, ap-plied to web pages, are two sides of the same coin since, among other factors, they share content that is quite necessary to get back the product advertising information to other cultures. Keywords: Transcreation, web pages, digital marketing, localization

Mots clés: palabras claves: Transcreación ,páginas web, marketing digital, localización. ; Keywords: Transcreation, web pages, digital marketing, localization


La traduction aux frontières linguistiques et culturelles :Le dualisme traduction-culture

Belkacem -zerhouni Fatima Zohra, 
2024-04-02

Résumé: La traduction est un croisement entre les cultures. Elle détermine la corrélation de toutes les dimensions de l'activité culturelle en tant que structures indissociables. Par ailleurs, la culture s'exprime à travers la littérature et la traduction, à mesure qu'elle se déploie l'étrangeté du métier. Le rôle de la traduction consiste à mettre en contact plusieurs textes et par expansion, plusieurs cultures. Cependant, la traduction peut approfondir la frontière entre la culture d'origine et la culture cible. Ce phénomène indique un déplacement des frontières entre les littératures. Le monde actuel est constitué d’espaces multiculturels qui arrivent à communiquer à travers une langue considérée comme étant internationale, qui se veut langue de contact Cependant, la langue n’est pas uniquement un moyen de communication mais un véhicule de culture. La traduction, en tant qu’une préoccupation sociale et culturelle, a un impact sur les relations entre les cultures et les littératures, ainsi que sur le développement des systèmes littéraires.

Mots clés: Croisement culturel ; culture ; frontière ; impact ; traduction


Eastern Soul on Western Soil: Identity Crisis in Mohsin Hamid’s The Reluctant Fundamentalist

أورنيد سمية, 
2024-05-28

Résumé: In more ways than one, literature can be viewed as a contributor to transcultural studies inasmuch as it provides a set of new perspectives on perceiving culture and collective identity. In this context, diasporic literature comes to the fore as an increasingly popular and relevant literary genre that discusses such issues in artistic and creative ways. Diaspora is a term broadly attached to the set of fictional works that explore the dilemmas, struggles, and pursuits of misfit characters in foreign cultures. Mohsin Hamid’s well-acclaimed novel, The Reluctant Fundamentalist (2007), is among the best illustrations of this. The latter is a bildungsroman taking place at the highly delicate phase of pre- and post-9/11 attacks. The novel follows a Muslim Pakistani man’s journey toward the construction of an identity, and a loss thereof, thereby evoking inquiries about Americanness, fundamentalism, and Otherness. To this end, the present paper seeks to trace the growth of the protagonist’s culturally conflicted consciousness, while simultaneously reading it as an allegory to the map of colonialism’s collective consciousness. A textual analytical study is conducted from the postcolonial prism to conclude that individual identity aligns with the collective one regardless of the nature of cultural circumstances surrounding the less powerful subject.

Mots clés: Americanness ; False consciousness ; Otherness ; September 11th ; The Reluctant Fundamentalist


Exploring Algerian Teachers’ Digital Literacy under the CBA: Case of EFL Secondary School Teachers

حساني مارية,  محارث سارة, 
2024-03-02

Résumé: Teachers’ digital literacy has become a sine qua non in today’s educational landscape. However, the research on this critical skill remains relatively scarce, particularly considering the growing recognition of context’s pivotal role in shaping competencies. Besides, the existing body of literature highlights a concerning deficiency in integrating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) within English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms under the Competency-Based Approach (CBA). This study aims to explore EFL secondary school teachers’ digital literacy in the Algerian context, namely under the CBA. Using a mixed methods design and random clustered sampling, thirty-nine secondary school EFL teachers participated in this study. They filled out a questionnaire adapted from the DigCompEdu framework and partook in semi-structured interviews. Data analysis involved SPSS V22 for quantitative aspects and thematic analysis for qualitative insights. The results reveal a noticeable discrepancy between teachers’ overall digital literacy and their digital literacy within the CBA. This disparity is explained by the outdated curriculum which places minimal emphasis on digital competencies. Moreover, the numerous challenges that surround the CBA in the Algerian classroom undermine teachers’ development of their digital literacy. However, the study underlines the significance of project work as the optimum CBA component that motivates teachers to enhance their digital skills. Practical seminars and special digital literacy programs along with continuous updates to EFL curricula are needed to aid teachers in coping with the exponential evolution of technology within the education realm.

Mots clés: Algeria ; CBA ; Competence ; Digital Literacy ; EFL ; Secondary School ; Teachers


المترجم و إستراتيجية التسويق العصبي: من دور الخبير إلى دور الموطن

شواقري مريم, 
2024-05-07

الملخص: يهدف هذا البحث إلى تسليط الضوء على دور المترجم الذي لا ينفك يتغير يوما بعد يوم خاصة بعد ظهور ما يسمى بإستراتيجية التسويق العصبي التي تعد بمثابة قفزة نوعية في المجال الإشهاري و التجاري و لقد عرفت تطورا كبيرا تماشيا مع ظهور الحوسبة السحابية،التوطين ، النشر الإلكتروني ، تقنيات الذكاء الاصطناعي و التعلم العميق...الخ .ولعل من أهم الإشكالات التي تطرح: ما المقصود بإستراتيجية التسويق العصبي وكيف يمكن للمترجم أن يستغل آليات التسويق العصبي في توطين و أقلمة المواقع الإلكترونية و في الدعاية للمنتجات و بالتالي إتاحتها للزبائن ؟ خاصة بعد توافر خدمات التجارة الإلكترونية التي تعرضها مواقع متعددة على رأسها موقع أمازون موضوع دراستنا.الذي سنبرهن من خلاله أن هذا الأمر قد أتاح فرصة أكبر للمترجم بصفته وسيطا اجتماعيا لإظهار مواهبه و عرض خدماته و للتعاقد مع الشركات المتعددة الجنسيات. The translator's role has evolved considerably with the emergence of neuromarketing, cloud computing, localization, e-publishing, artificial intelligence techniques and deep learning...etc. Thus the most important issues are: What is a neural marketing strategy and how can the translator exploit the mechanisms of neuromarketing to localize websites and advertising? Especially after the availability of e - commerce services which are offered by many sites like Amazon the subject of our study. Finally we proved that this has allowed the translator to demonstrate his talents, offer his services and contract with multinational companies.

الكلمات المفتاحية: ترجمة ; تجارة إلكترونية ; تسويق عصبي ; مترجم موطن ; مترجم خبير e-commerce ; expert ; , localizer ; neuromarketing ; translation


The Retranslation of the Quran into English: A Study of the Common Motivations behind 71 Retranslations

Dr Ayman, 
2024-05-21

Résumé: The Qur’an has been translated and re-translated into English several times. A large number of studies have explored these translations from different points of view. However, exploring the motivations or justifications of retranslating this text into English has not received sufficient attention. This study aims to shed light on the most common motivations behind the retranslation of 71 Quran Translations in English by examining the paratextual materials of them, and provide specific interpretations of the statistical differences between these motivations in light of the conditions in which those translations were produced and received. The study showed that the most prominent motivations behind the re-translation of the Qur’an in English are respectively: bringing translation semantically closer to the Quran, raising the level of understanding the Quran in the target language, simplifying its language, providing a new reading of the text in the target language, and highlighting some of its content and stylistic features. These justifications or motivations have shaped the production, reproduction and reception of these retranslations in this language and should, it is argued, be understood in light of specific linguistic, historical and geopolitical transformations in the last two centuries, especially in the West. The study is divided into an overview, a literature review, data and methodology of the study, results of the study, a discussion of these results, and a conclusion.

Mots clés: Key terms: motivations of retranslation, paratextual materials, Quran Translation, retranslation


Croisement d’écritures et identités maghrébines au cinéma français : « Un Prophète » et « Fatima ».

Busto Núñez Martázul, 
2024-05-21

Résumé: La présence maghrébine dans le cinéma français de fiction a été abordée sous différents angles visant à définir son évolution aux écrans. Aucune étude n’a néanmoins jamais tenu compte du traitement du texte écrit dans le discours filmique comme indice pertinent de ce fait. L’objectif de cet article est de centrer l’attention sur la forme écrite de la langue intégrée de manière significative dans certains films, afin de démontrer la pertinence de l’étude de ce mode d’expression pour une compréhension intégrale de n’importe quel discours filmique. L’approche méthodologique proposée part de la reconnaissance de la nature multimodale du discours cinématographique intégrée dans une considération sémio-pragmatique de la fictionnalisation. Il s’agit de démontrer en même temps la pertinence significative du texte écrit intégré au même niveau que d’autres modes et médias de communication et d’expression dans le discours à nature multiple que tout film constitue. Depuis cette perspective, l’analyse taxonomique du mode « texte-écrit », mode à réalité hybride (texte-image et texte-code), dans les films « Un prophète », de Jacques Audiard, et « Fatima », de Philippe Faucon, relève de l’importance de tenir compte des manifestations écrites des langues pour élargir le regard porté sur la configuration des présences maghrébines dans le discours cinématographique français et dans la société française y représentée.

Mots clés: Discours filmique multimodal ; Migration maghrébine ; Texte écrit.


Enhancing EFL Learners’ Communicative Skills through Dramatisation of Lessons

بنيرد عيسى,  بن علي رڤيڤ نصيرة, 
2024-05-26

Résumé: Abstract Dramatisation breathes vitality into the realm of language learning, transcending mere vocabulary to engage the entire learner - their body, mind, emotions, and senses. This research explores the integration of drama within language instruction and its profound impact on students' speaking proficiency. Studies consistently highlight that enacting lessons not only bolsters fluency but also instills a sense of confidence in learners. As students step into various roles and articulate lines, their language skills undergo marked improvement, rendering their speech more natural and expressive. This newfound confidence serves as a catalyst, empowering students to actively participate in classroom discourse and embrace English communication with enthusiasm. Even for those initially hesitant to voice their thoughts, the immersive experience of dramatisation provides a safe haven. The playful nature of role-play alleviates apprehensions, enabling even the most reserved learners to find their voice and connect with their peers on a deeper level. Furthermore, the empathetic exploration of diverse perspectives inherent in dramatisation enriches students' spoken English with nuance and emotion. Beyond immediate language proficiency, dramatised lessons foster positive attitudes towards learning, injecting an element of enjoyment and excitement into the language acquisition process. By engaging in creative expression, learners not only acquire language skills but also develop a genuine passion for linguistic exploration. In essence, the integration of dramatisation into language instruction serves as a powerful tool for guiding students towards achieving proficiency in a language. Its multifaceted benefits extend beyond the classroom, shaping learners into confident, expressive communicators with a profound appreciation for the intricacies of language and culture.

Mots clés: Communication ; Dramatisation ; EFL Learners ; Project-Based Learning ; Speaking


Blended Learning as an Auxiliary Tool to Enhance Student Learning

قازي تاني ليندة,  قداوي سمية, 
2024-05-17

Résumé: The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed the global educational landscape, compelling institutions to adopt distance learning approaches. In Algeria, where face-to-face instruction was the norm, this shift presented unique challenges. This article explores the effectiveness of blended learning, a hybrid approach combining distance and face-to-face elements, in Algerian higher education. Through a survey of Master's students in English at the University of Mascara, we investigate their perceptions and experiences of blended learning. The findings not only confirm the anticipated benefits of blended learning but also reveal unexpected gains, suggesting that this approach can enrich the educational experience and enhance academic outcomes beyond addressing pandemic-related challenges.

Mots clés: Blended learning ; Covid-19 ; Digital teaching ; Distance learning ; e-Learning Algerian higher education


آليّات التّلاعب في ترجمة الخطاب السّياسي من منظور إدراكي- عرفاني

مجاهدي نوال, 
2024-05-23

الملخص: في ظل العولمة وتعدد وسائل الاتصال السمعية –البصرية وتغير الأوضاع الجيو سياسية والاقتصادية أصبحت ترجمة الوقائع والأحداث الدولية ضرورة ملحة وخاصة الخطابات السياسية التي تمارس ضغطا وأثرا بالغا في تغيير المواقف وإتباع اتجاهات فكرية وأيديولوجية مختلفة. ولعل ما يهمنا في هذه الدراسة هو تبيان وقع فعل التلاعب على متلقي الترجمة من منظور إدراكي-عرفاني وإسهامه في تحوير الرسائل الأصلية وتغير أفاق الانتظار بتبني وجهات نظر مغايرة وكسب أصوات مؤيدة جديدة .

الكلمات المفتاحية: ترجمة الخطاب السياسي ; الأيديولوجيا ; التلاعب ; الكفاءات الإدراكية، العرفانية ; الأثر


The Contribution of the Interpretative Theory to Disambiguating Automated Translation

كوداد محمد,  Nicoleta Stanca, 
2024-05-29

Résumé: The translation process, either human or automated is faced with ambiguity that hinders the clarity of the message. It pollutes translation. It renders the target text tainted lacking the clarity conditioned to convey the exhaustive meaning and intention of the source text. As a consequence, receptors may fail to grasp the precise meaning contained in the linguistic structure. The automated translation process impacts conveying the target meaning, disambiguating it leads to overcoming the discursive obstacles, which reflect the ambiguity residue. The Interpretative Theory in Translation adopted a distinct simplistic approach to produce a clear translation. It focuses on the content contained rather than on the containing form. This paper aims at checking the validity of the interpretive model to be applied to Automated Translation. To what extent the interpretive theory can serve as a model of disambiguating automated translation to reflect the research question to answer? Hypothesizing that the fundamentals of the theory can constitute precious guidance to disambiguating automation in translation is the research core on which this paper gravitates.

Mots clés: Automated translation; Disambiguation; Explicitness; The interpretative theory in Translation; Understanding


Building the Oranian-English Parallel Corpus: Methodology and Compilation Process

Dou Abdelbasset,  Kissi Khalida, 
2024-05-24

Résumé: The scarcity of linguistic resources poses a major challenge for automated translation and processing of dialects. These resources are crucial for natural language processing experts conducting research on dialect recognition, processing, and machine translation. This paper describes the compilation of a dataset for an Algerian low-resource language as it emphasizes the importance of developing resources for Algerian dialects. It examines existing relevant corpora and details the creation process and unique features of the pioneering Oranian-English Parallel Corpus (OEPC). OEPC is the first parallel corpus built from scratch that pairs an Algerian dialect with its English counterparts. The paper outlines the criteria and steps involved in compiling a monolingual corpus for the Oranian dialect (ORN), including data sources and formats. ORN comprises 8500 sentences, which were then translated into English to form OEPC. This valuable linguistic resource is a product of the ERAD project, an initiative aimed at providing NLP professionals with diverse Algerian mono-, multi-, and cross-dialectal corpora. The paper also explains the data compilation and augmentation techniques used to expand the project's outputs.

Mots clés: low-resource languages ; machine translation ; Oranian dialect ; parallel corpus ; ERAD


Using Cross-Linguistic-Cultural Interferences as a Means for Meaning Negotiation in Classroom Discourse

بلعيدوني جيلالي,  سي مرابط محمد العربي, 
2024-05-28

الملخص: The process of encoding and decoding discussions about the nature of discussed meaning is affected by items from the previous learned languages, which means that the negotiation of meaning carried implied in cross-linguistic transfers and so for cultural interferences affects how learners interpret the negotiated foreign locutions. A sample of twenty adult students from The Center of Intensive Teaching of Languages (CEIL) at Ibn Khaldoun University of Tiaret (Algeria) was the subjects of observations, interviews, and experiments during our investigation into this phenomenon. Through treatment, discussion, and analysis of the data collected in the district of Tiaret (Algeria), we were able to gain a deeper comprehension of the topic under investigation. Later advances led to the conceptualization of the phenomenon's constituent elements. This made it possible for us to classify its elements by figuring out how the researched structure affected the adult learners' abilities to learn foreign concepts in the target language, as well as how frequently and at what rate it occurred. The degree to which the previously learned languages have an impact on meaning negotiation depends critically on how these concepts are interpreted. الملخص تتأثر عملية تشفير وفك تشفير المناقشات حول طبيعة المعنى الذي تمت مناقشته بعناصر من اللغات المكتسبة مسبقًا، مما يعني أن تدارس المعنى الذي تتم عن طريق النقل عبر اللغات والتداخلات الثقافية يؤثر على كيفية تفسير المتعلمين للعبارات الأجنبية التي تم التفاوض عليها. كانت مجموعة من عشرين طالبا من مركز التدريس المكثف للغات (CEIL) بجامعة ابن خلدون بولاية تيارت موضوع الملاحظات والمقابلات والتجارب خلال تحقيقنا في هذه الظاهرة. ومن خلال معالجة ومناقشة وتحليل البيانات التي تم جمعها في منطقة تيارت بالجزائر، تمكنا من الحصول على فهم أعمق للموضوع قيد التحقيق. أدت التطورات اللاحقة إلى وضع تصور للعناصر المكونة للظاهرة. وهذا مكننا من تصنيف عناصره من خلال معرفة كيفية تأثير البنية المدروسة على قدرات المتعلمين البالغين على تعلم المفاهيم الأجنبية في اللغة المستهدفة، وكذلك مدى تكرار ذلك وبأي معدل. تعتمد درجة تأثير اللغات التي تم تعلمها مسبقًا على تفاوض المعنى بشكل حاسم على كيفية تفسير هذه المفاهيم

الكلمات المفتاحية: Adult learners of English as a foreign language ; transfers across languages ; interferences of culture ; interpretation of foreign locutions ; negotiation of meaning


Practical Guidelines for Implementing Translation into the EFL Classroom

بلهادية عمر, 
2024-05-31

Résumé: The use of languages other than the target one in foreign language teaching (FL) contexts has been interestingly gaining ground recently. A multitude of research has shown that though dogmatically no other language than the target language should be used in the FL classroom, L1 is used by many teacher and learners. Research investigations that targeted the use of L1 in the foreign language classroom unveiled some purposes behind teachers’ will. These include instruction, classroom management, and building relationships in the classroom (Shin, Dixon, & Choi, 2019). It is noteworthy that managing the class and building relationships with the learners are crucial to the success of the lesson; yet they cannot be realized via the target language, especially with less proficient language learners. This article falls into the realm of translation use in foreign language teaching. It attempts primarily to bridge the gap between theory and practice, through suggesting a set of practical guidelines for teachers wishing to implement translation into their classroom. These guidelines are meant to model the judicious use of L1, and thus answer teachers’ queries about where to introduce L1 exactly within the lesson procedure, and by means of which tasks. In order to achieve a maximum of teacher-friendliness, the suggested guidelines are designed in reference to a lesson procedure based on the textual approach, with the implementation of translation-based tasks throughout the phases of the lesson, while mentioning the aim behind the use of L1 each time a translation task is introduced.

Mots clés: EFL ; Translation ; Lesson procedure ; Guidelines ; L1; Mother tongue


L’intérêt pédagogique des cartes mentales en classe de FLE : comment les intégrer dans des scénarios didactiques pour développer et évaluer les compétences langagières

Varsamidou Athéna, 
2024-05-20

Résumé: La carte mentale, également appelée carte heuristique ou conceptuelle, est un outil graphique qui permet la représentation visuelle des idées, des concepts et des informations de manière concrète et organisée. Elle est souvent utilisée pour faciliter la compréhension et la mémorisation d'idées. Une carte mentale est créée en partant d'un concept central auquel sont associés des branches représentant des idées principales et secondaires. Ces branches sont à leur tour subdivisées en sous-branches, formant ainsi une structure arborescente. Les éléments de base d’une carte mentale incluent des notions importantes, des images, des couleurs et des connexions entre les différents éléments. Cet outil est particulièrement utile pour simplifier des informations complexes, encourager la créativité, favoriser l'apprentissage et renforcer la mémorisation. La structure visuelle d'une carte mentale reflète la manière dont le cerveau organise naturellement l'information, ce qui en fait un outil puissant dans divers contextes éducatifs. Dans le cadre du présent article, nous allons montrer comment intégrer les cartes mentales en classe de FLE pour dynamiser l’enseignement de la langue et favoriser le développement des compétences langagières communicatives (production et interaction écrites et orales) tout en créant un contexte à la fois authentique et motivant pour les apprenants. Nous allons également se focaliser sur le rôle des cartes mentales en tant qu’outil d’évaluation des compétences visées.

Mots clés: carte mentale ; compétences langagières ; didactique du FLE ; évaluation


Negotiating Masculinity and Cultural Identity in Americanah: An Analysis of Hegemonic Norms in Nigerian Diaspora Literature

الكاتب نسرين,  عمارة نعيمي, 
2024-06-05

Résumé: This article delves into the portrayal of masculinity and cultural identity in diaspora literature, with a focus on Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie's novel Americanah as a primary case study. Based on Connell's theory of hegemonic masculinity, the study between hands aims to investigate how cultural expectations and power dynamics shape the construction of masculinity within Nigerian diasporic communities. Through meticulous analysis of the male characters, the study uncovers the nuanced negotiations of male protagonists with hegemonic norms in their quest for identity and belonging. Key findings underscore how the interplay of race, gender and immigrant experience contributes in shaping both individual and collective identities. The analysis illuminates instances of resistance and subversion against hegemonic masculinity, while also highlighting the transformative potential of cultural hybridity in redefining traditional notions of masculinity within diaspora literature. Substantially, this research contributes to a deeper comprehension of the multifaceted dynamics of masculinity and cultural identity, as it offers new and valuable insights into the complexities of diasporic experiences and their profound roles in shaping identity within the diaspora literature genre. Eventually, this study opens avenues for further research into the intersection of gender, culture and identity in contemporary literature, fostering a deeper understanding of the diverse narratives and experiences within diaspora communities.

Mots clés: Cultural identity ; Diaspora Literature ; Hegemonic masculinity ; Masculinity ; Nigerian Diaspora


Examination of Reflective Practice Levels in Tailored Structured Observation Journals

Belaggoun Ghania,  Djouima Leila, 
2024-06-06

الملخص: Reflective practice (RP) is crucial in the professional development of teachers. This process enables them to critically analyse their teaching practices leading to informed decisions that help them progress as practitioners. However, the level of reflection may vary from one teacher to another. The analysis of documents such as classroom observation grids and reflective journals can reveal the different levels of reflection. Both tools are essential to trigger reflection in student teachers and stimulate them to seek ways to improve their teaching practice during and after the training phase. Following a qualitative research design that employed document analysis as a research instrument, this study aims to examine the different levels of RP in tailored structured observation journals. The participants of the study were seventeen fourth- and fifth-year English as Foreign Language (EFL) preservice teachers at École Normale Supérieure de Constantine (ENSC), Algeria who filled in structured observation journals during the observation phase of the practical training. Following the framework of Larrivee (2008) where three levels of reflection were identified: surface, pedagogical, and critical, the structured observation journals were analysed. The results of the study showed that surface reflection was the most documented level with 183 instances (n=183) related to the different teaching methods and strategies followed by pedagogical reflection (n=99) and critical reflection (n=11). The study revealed that the structured observation journals assisted preservice teachers in being more reflective while observing lessons. However, they still needed to enhance their critical reflection skills to improve their reflective practice. تعتبر الممارسة التفكيرية (RP) نشاطا حاسما في التطوير المهني للأساتذة حيث تسمح لهم هذه العملية بتحليل ممارساتهم التعليمية بشكل نقدي . هذا الأمر يؤدي إلى اتخاذ قرارات مستنيرة لتطور مهارات الطلبة المتمرنين كممارسين للمهنة (Loughra, , 2002, Richards & Lockhart, 1994, & Farrell & Macapinlac, 2021) . غير أنه يوجد اختلاف في مستوى التفكير من أستاذ إلى آخر. إن تحليل الوثائق مثل شبكات الملاحظة داخل القسم واليوميات التفكيرية أثناء مرحلة الملاحظة في التدريب الميداني بإمكانه الكشف عن مستويات الممارسة التفكيرية ، حيث تعد هاتان الوسيلتان ضروريتان لتنشيط التفكير لدى الأساتذة المتدربين وتحفيزهم للبحث عن طرق لتحسين ممارساتهم التعليمية أثناء و بعد مرحلة التدريب . يعتمد هذا البحث على تصميم نوعي استخدم من خلاله تحليل وثائقي كأداة بحث ، وتهدف هذه الدراسة إلى استكشاف المستويات المختلفة للممارسات التفكيرية باستعمال يوميات الملاحظة المنظمة بشكل محدد . وشارك في هذه الدراسة عينة من الطلبة الأساتذة وعددهم سبعة عشرة من مستوى السنة الرابعة والسنة الخامسة لغة إنجليزية كلغة أجنبية بالمدرسة العليا للأساتذة قسنطينة ، الجزائر . ولقد قام هؤلاء بملء يوميات الملاحظة المنظمة خلال فترة الملاحظة في التدريب الميداني ، وباستعمال الإطار المقدم من طرف Larrivee 2008 ، تم تحديد ثلاث مستويات من التفكير السطحي ، التربوي والنقدي . وبعد تحليل يوميات الملاحظة ، أظهرت نتائج الدراسة أن التفكير السطحي كان أكثر مستوى من التفكير توثيقا بوجود 183 (183n:) حالة تتعلق بالأساليب والاستراتيجيات التعليمية المختلفة ، يليها التفكير التربوي (n:99) والتفكير النقدي (n:11) . وكشفت الدراسة أن يوميات الملاحظة المنظمة تساعد الأساتذة المتمرنين على التفكير أكثر أثناء مشاهدة الدروس ، بيد أنه من الضروري تحسين مهارات هؤلاء ف التفكير النقدي لتحسين ممارساتهم الفكرية Résumé La pratique reflexive(PR) est cruciale dans le développement professionnel des enseignants . Ce processus leur permet d'analyser de manière critique leurs pratiques pédagogiques, ce qui les conduit à prendre des décisions éclairées pour progresser en tant que praticiens (Richards & Lockhart, 1994, Loughran, 2002, & Farrell & Macapinlac , 202). Cependant, le niveau de réflexion peut varier d'un enseignant à un autre . L'analyse de documents tels que les grilles d'observation et les journaux réflexifs peut révéler les différents niveaux de réflexion. Ces deux outils sont essentiels pour déclencher la réflexion chez les enseignants en formation initiale et les stimuler à rechercher des moyens pour améliorer leur pratique pédagogique pendant et après la phase de formation. En suivant une démarche qualitative, qui a utilisé l'analyse documentaire comme instrument de recherche, cette étude vise à explorer les différents niveaux de PR dans les journaux d'observation structurée adaptés. Les participants de l'étude étaient dix- sept enseignants stagiaires de quatrième et cinquième année D'Anglais comme langue étrangère (EFL) à l'école normale supérieure de Constantine (ENSC) en Algérie, qui ont rempli des journaux d'observation structurés lors de la phase d'observation de la formation pratique (stage). En suivant le cadre de Larrivée (2008) ou trois niveaux de réflexion ont été identifiés: superficiel, pédagogique et critique, les journaux d'observation structurés ont été analysés . Les résultats de l'étude ont révélé que la réflexion superficielle était le niveau le plus documenté avec 183 occurrences (n= 183) reliées aux différents méthodes et stratégies d'enseignement, suivie de la réflexion pédagogique (n=99) et de la réflexion critique (n=11). L'étude a également démontré que les journaux d'observation structurés ont aidé les enseignants stagiaires à devenir plus réflexifs lors de l'observation des cours. Cependant, il devraient encore améliorer leurs compétences en matière de réflexion critique pour améliorer leur pratique réflexive

الكلمات المفتاحية: Reflective practice ; Structured observation journals ; preservice teachers ; Larrivee's framework