افاق للعلوم

Afak For Sciences


Afak For Sciences Journal (A.S.J) is a double blind international peer-reviewed, Trimestrial, free scientific journal, Open-access journal, published by Djelfa University, Algeria. The journal publishes original scientific research paper and Electronic, languages: English and French, in human and social sciences plus economic studies. (A.S.J) is open for academic world and research institutes, academic and non-academic researchers and research team. Our goal is to provide original, relevant, and timely informations from diverse sources ; to write and published with absolute integrity ; and to serve as effectively as possible the needs of those involved in all human and social sciences plus economic areas. If your research will help us achieve these goals, we would like to bear from you. (A.S.J) provide immediate open access to its content on the principle that making the research freely avaible to the public supporting a greater global exchange of knowledge. The article must contain the title and abstract in the language of the article and in English is mandatory



  • Everyone is requested to review all documents related to publication in the journal, so the author must download the journal template form, in which there is a publication instruction file( author's guide).Through it, the approved form in the journal is viewed, when copying and pasting the article, regarding fonts and margins.
  • The journal ’s editorial board informs all authors that sending the undertaking is immediately after accepting the article for publication, and the article cannot be published without it, and it is downloaded from the platform and must be sent via e-mail to the journal.                                                                                                                                              


فترة الاستقبال غير محددة بآجال ( الاستقبال مفتوح طوال الوقت)

تعتذر هيئة المجلة للباحثين الأفاضل عن استقبال المقالات باللغة العربية










Kindergarten in the era of digitization: a forward-looking vision

بن النية أحلام,  يعلى فروق,  بوحفص طارق, 

Résumé: This research paper tries to present a modern vision for teaching and learning in the information age through anticipating the digitization of kindergartens and transforming them from stereotypical to informatics, by moving from traditional educational programs, methods and boring teaching methods that depend on memorization and indoctrination to modern methods and techniques in an attractive scientific template that depends on understanding and thinking skills. This is achieved by integrating the computer into its programs as a strategic choice. Scientific studies have proven its effectiveness in sharpening the talents of the child and exploding his energies in a creative, unconventional way that depends mainly on computerized programs designed on scientific foundations under the supervision of an academically and professionally qualified educator working to raise the level of educational outcomes in line with the specifications of a kindergarten Tomorrow that will qualify her children for professions we do not know yet; As the world of tomorrow is the world of digitization, or rather the world of inventions in various areas of life.

Mots clés: kindergarten, child, educator kindergarten, computer, computerized programs.

L’éducation aux médias dans le programme scolaire algérien

إدريس سهيلة, 

Résumé: résumé: L’objectif de cet article est de montrer l’importance accordée à la sensibilisation aux risques des médias dans l’’école algérienne. A cette fin, une analyse thématique a été effectuée sur tout contenu se rapportant aux médias dans les livres scolaires (moyen et secondaire). l’école Algérienne propose des enseignements transversaux et transdisciplinaires correspondants à l’éducation aux médias. Cependant l’approche de prévention aux risques médiatiques est loin d’être à la hauteur des défis à relever dans un environnement technologique qui ne cesse d’évoluer. Abstract: The objective of this article is to shed light on the importance given to raising awareness of the risks of the media in Algerian school. To this end, a thematic analysis was madding on all media-related content in schoolbooks for the different subjects for both middle and secondary levels. The Algerian school offers transversal and trans disciplinary courses corresponding to media education. However, the media risk prevention approach is far from equal to the challenges to be met in an ever-changing technological environment;

Mots clés: education aux medias ; programme scolaire ; sensibilisation ; risques

The Suez Crisis (1956) as a Threatening Challenge to the Commonwealth

ولديرو سعدية, 

Résumé: Adopting the analytical narrative approach, this paper explores how the Suez Crisis (1956) created a rift within the Commonwealth. This latter is an association that emerged after the Second World War (1939-1945) to encompass some of the ex-British colonies as one family rather than being under a colonial rule. Under a set of diverse principles, this association was supposed— and still is —to participate in promoting peace instead of waging wars, and its decisions should be built upon consultation and mutual consensus between its different members. However, in 1956, Britain broke those rules by fighting with France and Israel against Egypt in a war named as the Suez Crisis. By doing so, the unity of the Commonwealth was highly shaken.

Mots clés: Britain ; Commonwealth ; Suez Crisis

Panopticism and the Deconstruction of the Institutionalized Discourse of Racialized Beauty in Toni Morrison’s The Bluest Eye

برزوق هناء, 

Résumé: The impact of the notion of beauty on individuals is at the heart of The Bluest Eye. The characters’ admittance of their ugliness is a potentially fatal form of self-loathing. Furthermore, it is a means of reinforcing and confirming the normative beauty standards that the Whites have already established against them and that result in Pecola’s development of a scapegoat identity. The racialized meaning of beauty in The Bluest Eye maintains that the outside beauty reflects inner moral virtue. Pecola’s yearning for blue eyes reveals her self-loathing as she condones the normative racialized representations of beauty. Her final descent into madness could be blamed on the White supremacist myth of beauty. Thus, this paper is mainly concerned with Toni Morrison’s The Bluest Eye as a counter-discursive strategy to dismantle the already institutionalized racialized standards of beauty. This research is qualitatively carried out on Michel Foucault’s disciplinary concept of the panopticon to show how America built a massive panoptic system around the Hollywood industry. It further draws upon Morrison’s (1971) “What the Black Woman Thinks About Women's Lib” to reveal how she succeeds in revolutionizing the notion of beauty by building consensual empathy towards a little black girl who goes insane because of this panoptic mechanism.

Mots clés: beauty ; counter discourse ; panopticism; race; the bluest eye ; toni morrison

النسوية عناصرها وميزاتها في شعر غادة السمان وفروغ فرخزاد (دراسة مقارنة تحليلية).

اصل ركن آبادي ليلي, 

الملخص: كان أَدَبَا العربيِّ والفارسيِّ منذُ ظهورهما إلى أيامنا الراهنة مليئيْنِ بوصف الجمال من الجمال الطبيعي إلى جمال الكون وجمال المرأة، المراد من الشعر الأنثويّ ذلك الذي قرّظتْه شاعراتٌ في مختلف اللغات، فصوّرن صبوهنّ إلى مَن أحبَبْنَ من الرجال وإلى ما استقرّ في صدورهنّ من غرام. ثم إنّ هذا الضرب من الشعر النسوي – رغم ما دار بين النقاد خلاف مديد حول قبوله أو رفضه- تتسم بسمات عديدة، كاللغة النسوية ووصف غرامهنّ إلى أحبائهن ووصف أعمالهنّ المعتادة.لكلًّ من غادة السمّان وفروخ فرخزاد باعتبارهما الشاعرتين الطلائعيتين في الأدبين العربي والفارسي، قدمٌ راسخة في ترسيخ جذور هذا الضرب من الشعر في الأدبيْنِ، ثم كان هناك ضرب من المشتركات بين الشاعرتين فيما يخصّ بعض الوجوه الأنثوية مثل تجسيد الغرام ووصف الرجال وما إلى ذلك، ولكن الفارق الرئيس بين الشاعرتين هو أنّ فروغ فرخزاد أكثر تمرّدا على تقاليد المجتمع كما أن لغتها الشعرية أكثر اتصافا بالأنثوية.

الكلمات المفتاحية: الشعر الأنثويّ، غادة السّمّان، فروغ فرخزاد، الغرام، الحبيب.

La dictée révisée, comme moyen de faciliter le processus d’apprentissage de l’écriture au collège

غريب جمال,  بن عمار ربيعة, 

Résumé: Les apprenants collégiens rencontrent beaucoup de difficultés à améliorer leur compétence en écriture par manque de temps d’apprentissage de cette activité. Pour pallier cet échec, nous proposons la dictée révisée en tant qu’outil, pour faire préparer les apprenants avant sa réalisation en salle de classe. Notre problématique remet en question les outils didactiques appliqués dans l’enseignement de l’écrit étant une activité complexe, ce qui nous amène à la question principale de notre sujet et qui est : dans quelle mesure la dictée révisée pourrait-elle améliorer la perception auditive chez les apprenants de 3ère année moyenne ? La dictée révisée a permet aux apprenants de développer leur autonomie et les rendre plus actifs facilitant l’amélioration de leur écrit.

Mots clés:  difficultés en écrit ;  dictée révisée ;  perception auditive

The Impact of Web 2.0 Tools to Hone EFL Students’ Interculturality

بلمامون سهيلة, 

Résumé: Recently, the widespread use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) as well as Web 2.0 tools has brought about a paradigm shift in the teaching/learning process from teacher-centeredness into learner-centeredness in which EFL learners are able to cultivate their own intercultural communicative competence (ICC). These mobile devices provide a virtual space that can act as a catalyst to facilitate communication, exchanging messages, sharing knowledge, and interacting with others regardless of geographical boundaries. Stated differently, online platforms, such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter enable EFL students to communicate and interact with otherness from divergent linguistic and cultural backgrounds with just a couple of mouse-clicks, thereby bolstering their intercultural communication. To this end, a plethora of studies attempted to investigate the effectiveness of online world in cultivating EFL learners’ ICC. Accordingly, the paper at hand endeavored to discuss the effect of social media on ICC by reviewing the most relevant literature.

Mots clés:  Interculturality ;  Web 2.0 tools

Artificial intelligence: areas of use and levels of impact on human life

عزوز سعيدة, 

Résumé: Through this research paper, the researcher seeks to shed light on the nature of artificial intelligence, which has moved from a mere idea that roams the human imagination to practice a process that we see in reality, as the applications of artificial intelligence have become an integral part of various administrative, economic and industrial activities. Therefore, we had to raise this topic to know the basics of artificial intelligence, its principles, types, areas of use, mechanisms of work, and the benefits and harms resulting from its employment in the various activities of human life. It was necessary to rely on the descriptive survey method with the tool of observation and reading of the various foreign references that preceded us in addressing this current topic in order to describe and simplify the phenomenon, because in its first indications it appears to us as a complex phenomenon that we have not yet become accustomed to. À travers ce document de recherche, le chercheur cherche à faire la lumière sur la nature de l'intelligence artificielle, qui est passée d'une simple idée qui parcourt l'imagination humaine à la pratique d'un processus que nous voyons dans la réalité, car les applications de l'intelligence artificielle sont devenues une partie intégrante dans le cadre de diverses activités administratives, économiques et industrielles. Par conséquent, nous devions aborder ce sujet pour connaître les bases de l'intelligence artificielle, ses principes, ses types, ses domaines d'utilisation, ses mécanismes de travail, ainsi que les avantages et les inconvénients résultant de son emploi dans les diverses activités de la vie humaine. Il a fallu s'appuyer sur la méthode d'enquête descriptive avec l'outil d'observation et de lecture des différentes références étrangères qui nous ont précédés dans le traitement de ce sujet d'actualité pour décrire et simplifier le phénomène, car dans ses premières indications il nous apparaît comme un phénomène complexe auquel nous ne sommes pas encore habitués.

Mots clés: intelligence  artificial intelligence:  human: ; intelligence  intelligence artificielle :  humain :

Using Principal Components Analysis in Designing Academic Writing Scoring Rubrics

ميزاب منال, 

Résumé: Academic writing assessment is pivotal in university career. Some teachers tend to assign holistic marks to written compositions, ignoring assessment criteria. However, this paper highlights the importance of systematicity in assessment using scoring rubrics that are designed according to the context and population they are directed to. This paper suggests a paragraph scoring rubric after performing exploratory Principal Components Analysis (PCA). A set of 19 evaluation criteria is suggested and piloted on 51 paragraphs written by first-year university students from the Department of English at Tebessa University. After setting oblique rotation, PCA indicates that the variables are correlated (sig.  0.001 in Bartlett’s test), and are extracted into five factors that are correlated as well (r 0.32). The PCA pattern matrix indicates that some variables have cross-loadings, so they should be deleted. Therefore, the initial variables are extracted into four factors, named academic writing style, paragraph structure, lexis, and writing mechanics. These components constitute the holistic scoring rubric, which is recommended in scoring paragraphs, and which is tested to validate its groupings and psychometric properties.

Mots clés: analytical rubric ; assessment ; holistic rubric ; PCA ; writing

Exploring the Impact of Sociolinguistic Instruction on EFL Learners’ Awareness of Language Communication Stereotypes

أحمد قاضي عبلة, 

Résumé: The objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness of sociolinguistic instruction in augmenting EFL learners’ awareness of language communication stereotypes and in challenging and reshaping their perceptions and attitudes towards them. This research administers a structured questionnaire to a random sample of 60 master one students at Djelfa University. The questionnaire is designed to gauge students' awareness of language communication stereotypes across various dimensions. The research yields compelling insights into the transformative potential of sociolinguistic instruction. Key findings underscore that EFL learners exposed to such instruction exhibit heightened awareness of language communication stereotypes. The study identifies specific areas of impact, with notable changes observed in students' perceptions of accent, region and gender-related stereotypes. These results affirm the pedagogical significance of sociolinguistic instruction in challenging preconceived notions and fostering a more inclusive approach to communication.

Mots clés: Sociolinguistic instruction ; Communication ; Awareness ; Stereotypes


بن جميل خولة, 

Résumé: This paper explores the protagonist's journey in forming her identity in Jamaica Kincaid's Annie John. It utilizes Freud's psychosexual development and Chodorow's mother-daughter relationship theories to analyze Annie's dynamics with her parents. Despite her efforts to distance herself from her mother, a yearning for reunion persists, leading to the replication of maternal attitudes in her relationships with girls. The study explains Annie's rebellious phases, her resistance to separating from her mother, and her rejection of traditional gender roles. It investigates her identity formation in relation to her parents, her interactions with both genders and her unconventional attachment to her mother.

Mots clés: Mother-daughter relationship ; Identity construction ; Pychosexual development ; father-daughter relationship ; Reproduced mothering

Poetics of Parallelism in Contemporary Arabic Poetry: “Ephesians in Ephemeral Speech as a Model”

مسكين توفيق, 

Résumé: Custom of Contemporary Arab Poetry Transformations in Form and Content The poet endeavoured to promote the construction of his text through the search for various expressive alternatives and techniques that allow him to have a generous horizon capable of accommodating the real developments of his time with its various cultural and intellectual gifts, It allows him to express in high-end artistic language and creative methods derived from the movement of poetry modernism to elevate contemporary Arab poetry to a high level of performance and intellectual ethics.

Mots clés:  poetic discourse ;  parallelism ;  stylistic phenomena

Social Regulation and Organizational Change : A Dynamic Interaction

Sadaoui Smail,  Boumegoura Naim, 

Résumé: Social regulation and organizational change dynamically interact within organizations. While social regulation provides stability through norms, values, and shared culture, it evolves during organizational change. This change, disruptive yet fostering adaptability and innovation, influences and is influenced by social regulation. Collaboration is central, aiding in navigating change and fostering solidarity. Despite challenges, such as tensions, constructive conflict management is crucial. In summary, this dynamic interaction shapes organizational life, promoting evolution and prosperity amidst constant change.

Mots clés: Social regulation ; organizational change ; Negotiation ; Interaction ; Collaboration