مجلة عصور الجديدة
Volume 5, Numéro 20, Pages 194-211

دور القوافل الصحراوية في العلاقات التجارية بين المغرب وإفريقيا جنوب الصحراء خلال العصر الحديث.

الكاتب : عماري الحسين .

الملخص

The role of the desert caravans in trade relations between Morocco and sub-Saharan Africa in modern times This intervention seeks to highlight the active role played by desert caravans in trade relations that were between Morocco and Sudan in modern times, forming a good way that contributed to the creation of a merger and relations between the two parties. They had also consistently served as a travelling exhibition and a process of selling and buying. And if their importance may vary with important routes and commercial potential offered by each shopping center, the desert caravans had in turn contributed to the prosperity of the trans-Saharan trade routes. This paper also attempts to give an idea about the organization of the loan convoy to cross the desert, and its social composition, operation and regulation mechanisms in what was submitted, because in addition to the presence of a large number of camels in the convoy through, there were also a significant number of travellers, traders, and camels books. This composition desert convoy was associated with the importance of the trans-Saharan trade and the conditions by which this activity was monitored, particularly due to security and the importance of roads and shopping centers . The elements of this team - which often belonged to a Saharan tribe - assumed a common way a set of tasks, making the convoy to describe as "a city that moves." The trade caravan had also experienced supervision elite constituted the best traders and representatives of religious and political authorities, in turn the Makhzen had dealt with the organization of the profession indexing and driving convoys, Jews also played a crucial role in organizing the convoy had since held various functions such as the selection of guides, the reward of the note, the performance of duty, and negotiation on convoy protection. Nomadic tribes were behind most successful business operations between southern Morocco and Sudan, through their knowledge of desert roads and indexing of trade caravans. And since it was the most experienced person who acted with the help of a professional guide the task of directing and organizing the conduct of the convoy, and to determine the times of departure and arrival, and due to the fact that the task of the guide in the wilderness was difficult, the choice of the person who will take this serious responsibility underwent several conditions, such as experience, sufficient familiarity and detailed knowledge of trade routes and their natural characteristics in order to determine wells, and know the scene of pastures and anticipation of storms, and the movement of sand dunes, in addition to the availability of sufficient courage and intuition to avoid ambushes that the bandits would put the convoy, as well as the capacity for dialogue and negotiation with the heads of centers that the convoy had been their way, or with people who watched the protection of trade routes to ensure the safety of the convoy, and define taxes passage or entry to commercial markets. Private convoys were to join either the Makhzen the convoy to cross the desert that was not without difficulty and problems, or join other convoys from some cities to cross the desert in mass and in accordance with a well-regulated organization. The desert crossing lasted up to six or eight months of back and forth, the trip was often done at night, but during the day the convoy stopped in the afternoon to break under the tents and prepare for the new travel at night. Convoys often travelled in winter or autumn to avoid dust devils that could cover the well, and excessive heat, and to enjoy the presence of some pasture in the Sahara, and because the wilderness for another season, was in itself a major challenge, while the return was at the end of this season to take advantage of the existence of pasture and avoid increasing water consumption. The possibility of exposure to losses in the desert require the supervisor to conduct convoy and stakeholders of the subject to take the necessary precautions to provide water and a security system that could protect trade convoys the success of the transit process, and the Makhzen and fraternities and other elements played an important role in this context. Given the importance and the critical role desert caravans played in trade relations between Morocco and Sudan during the specified period, this paper aims to answer the following question: What were the contribution limits of the desert caravans in the commercial communication between Morocco and Sudan? What was the organization that was in preparation for crossing the desert? What was the social composition of the caravan of the desert, and the mechanisms it had suffered, and encountered problems and the steps the supervisor's conduct of the convoy, and interested parties on this matter should be taken to provide a security system that could ensure the protection of the caravan and the success of the process of crossing the desert strewn with many risks? What were the commercial materials carried by the trade caravans as part of the trade conducted between the Moroccan and Sudanese parties?

الكلمات المفتاحية

caravans; trade relations;Morocco ;sub-Saharan Africa; modern times;