الناصرية

الناصرية للدراسات الاجتماعية والتاريخية

Description

El-Naciryia for the social and historical studies is an internationally indexed scientific journal. It a nonprofit revue that belongs to the Mascara University. El Naciriya is an semi-annual journal with open access, it valorizes copyright, and supervised by a committee of highly qualified reviewers in the field. It accepts articles in Arabic and other languages, particularly French, English and Spanish, of researchers specialized in history, archeology, psychology, philosophy, Islamic studies, pedagogy, sociology and anthropology. The main norms of publishing studies in the journal are authenticity, quality of the work, academic language, objectivity, and avoiding ethnical, religious and political racism that lead to hatred, discrimination and terrorism. All articles are subject to double blind review, the committee is composed of a number of researchers, and specialized experts supervised by an international editorial board. Among the principle purposes of the journal publishing studies and scientific researches with a theoretical and experimental dimension as well as the valorization of the findings to serve our country and humanity.


10

Volumes

11

Numéros

219

Articles


La conservation du blé dans l'Algérie de l'époque ottomane / The preservation of wheat in the Algeria of the Ottoman epoch

إسمت تواتي, 

Résumé: Dans une « civilisation du blé » telle que la civilisation maghrébine, les techniques de conservation du blé ont revêtu une importance cruciale, pour un produit qui sans cela aurait connu une péremption rapide. Nous nous proposons ici d’évoquer ces techniques pour la période ottomane de l’Algérie. Il existait plusieurs contenants de conservation pour le blé algérien : les kouffi ou akufi, les guelâa, les tellis et différents types de fosses, dont le plus répandu -en même temps que le principal moyen de conservation du blé en Algérie- était la matmûra. Utilisées de façon groupée, les mtâmîr avaient une grande capacité de stockage et, dans l’ensemble, permettaient une bonne et longue conservation du blé, allant d’une année à plusieurs décennies selon les cas. L’efficacité de ce procédé était telle qu’il a peut-être même été emprunté par la rive nord de la Méditerranée. Silos souterrains, les mtâmîr étaient généralement bien protégés en cas de conflit et, en dehors des rares crises frumentaires particulièrement graves qu’a connu le pays, ont permis aux habitants de l’Algérie d’accéder à la sécurité alimentaire, voire de dégager des surplus importants pour le commerce, notamment d’exportation. / In a "wheat civilization" such as the Maghreb civilization, wheat preserve techniques were of crucial importance for a product that otherwise would have been quickly expired. We propose here to evoke these techniques for the Ottoman period of Algeria. There were several preserving containers for Algerian wheat: kouffi or akufi, guelâa, tellis, and various types of pits, the most common of which - at the same time as the main process for storing wheat in Algeria - was the matmûra. Used in a grouped way, the mtâmîr had a large storage capacity and, on the whole, allowed a good and long preserve of wheat, ranging from one year to several decades, depending on the case. The efficiency of this process was such that it may have even been taken by the northern shore of the Mediterranean. Underground silos, the mtâmîr were generally well protected in the event of conflict and, apart from the rare and particularly serious food crises experienced by the country, have allowed the inhabitants of Algeria to have access to food security, or even to significant surpluses for trade, especially exports.

Mots clés: Algeria ; Ottoman epoch ; wheat ; preserve ; silos ; Algérie ; époque ottomane ; blé ; conservation