الناصرية
Volume 7, Numéro 1, Pages 325-391

الدولة والمؤسسة الوقفية: مناقشة لعلاقة السياسي بالديني من خلال الوقف

الكاتب : غماري بي .

الملخص

During his long history, the Waqf’s, as an institution, has had a great importance in the Islamic society; this justifies our interest in the connections that exist between the State and the Waqf’s institution, and the effects of these connections on both the religious and political fields. The Islamic societies experienced two forms of governance: The Khalifat State which started with the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be upon Him) and ended with the fall of the Ottoman Empire, and the Nation State, inherited from the Khalifat State and still existing until now. During the establishment of these two forms of state, connections between religion and politics have always been dense and at the heart of the debate in the different Islamic institutions. These links have had their ups and downs affecting the relations between the state and the Waqf’s Institution. This situation is mainly due, on one hand, to the religious and traditional characters of the Waqf’s intuitions, and on the other to the fact that the state represents the political aspect of the society. The negotiations between religion and politics have always had both negative and/or positive effects on the Waqf’s institution. In this paper I will highlight the evolution of Waqf’s institution during the main phases of mutation of the Islamic societies. I will expose two models: the Algerian model and the Turkish one. Using these, I will demonstrate that the Waqf’s institution has experienced two phases: a large expansion during the Khalifate State due to the large homogeneity between religion and politics; and each of its systematic dissolution by the governing elites, and its restoration after the decline of the secular ideology.

الكلمات المفتاحية

الوقف، الدولة، العلاقة، السياسي، الديني، تعايش، تناحر