مقاربات فلسفية
Volume 5, Numéro 1, Pages 52-71

مقدِّماتٌ نقديَّةٌ حول أخلاق النِّقاش عند هابرماس

الكاتب : النبواني خلدون .

الملخص

In this article, I try to examine the works of Jürgen Habermas about discourse ethics, the issue that he has developed from Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action (1983) to Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy (1992). Habermas argues, contrary to philosophies of the subject, that his theory of communicative action and his works on discourse ethics are intersubjectives. Thus truths are not anymore personal, but rather the fruit of a consensus among people under discussion. Habermas distinguishes also between private and public spheres and thinks that his works on discourse ethics give equal attentions to individual as well as to society. I’ll try in this article to examine the validity claims of Habermas’s theory about discourse ethics to see if he grants equal interests to individual as he does to society. In other words, I’ll ask Habermas’s works if individual is not forgotten, as such, under the social intersubjective actions. Is Habermas’s ethical discourse is a symmetric one, and does it care, on the whole, about the difference? This is the main question of this article. I start by defining the distinction drown by Habermas between ethics and moral. Secondelly, I try to focus on his main works about discourse ethics especially on Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action (1983) and Justification and Application (1991). Thirdly, I find useful to compare Habermas’s ethical theory with some of its philosophical resources such as the works of Karl-Otto Apel, of Kant, and of Hegel to understand better his moral thoughts. Finally, before the conclusion, I study the relationship between moral and law in two of Habermas’s major works on the theory of law: Tanner Lectures (1986) and Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy (1992). In these two books, I attempt to answer the question: why Habermas has reduced in Between Facts and Norms … the important of the role of ethics within the system of law.

الكلمات المفتاحية

Habermas, discourse ethics, ethics, moral, argumentation, discussion, dialogue, communication, communicative action, census, norms, transcendentalism, universalism, public space, validity claims, Apel, Kant, Hegel, law, pragmatism, agreement, principle (D), principle (U), society, individual.