مجلة البحوث السياسية و الادارية
Volume 5, Numéro 1, Pages 98-115

المواطنة و مضامين العنف الناعم -قراءة في ثنائية المساواة و التميز

الكاتب : زدام يوسف . زنينة أسماء .

الملخص

The study included an investigation in the concept of the soft violence and the limits of the citizenship’s concept to avoid its causes and its effects. Then the exhibition of the development of the citizenship’s concept by focusing on the dialectics of disqualification (soft violence) and on integration(equality) ; hence the study of the development of the concept of "group" in the economical, social and political life. The development of the citizenship’s concept represents an expansion or a restriction of the soft violence mechanisms that the "group" exercised on the persons eliminated from it. For example, the obtaining of the right of participation in the political life for women is both restriction of elimination’s mechanisms and expansion in the concept of "group" including the right of enjoying of the whole rights. Despite the universal tendency about equality between human being –because of the communion of the mind and human nature- but it can’t make researchers omit two crucial truths ; first, the state’s space of the legal system of rights. Second, the legal system is not crucial to dedicate to the principle of the equality between citizens; because the membership of an individual/citizen in a community/state is what give him rights linked to raising abilities, elaboration choices, increase opportunities in way can’t be realized out of the state context. Then, state’s space of citizenship equality –and its opposites inequality & discrimination- consists four basic axes in which the different dimensions (economical, political, social and cultural) of citizenship are distributed, these axes are : the national identity, Social, cultural and transnational identification, Political participation, Effective system of rights. Despite the possibility of covering the legal and constitutional sides of meanings and dimensions of equality between citizens, but that can not be crucial to dedicate equality in community through the public behavior, what creats a feeling of ineqaulity, then presents behavior’s shackling dimensions caused by "fear" from other or " need", and as a result the social categories suffer from discrimination and moral constraint from several actors (official and non official). This is reflected in the societal exclusion of the individual in the social structures, gender problems and is especially prominent at the present time the matters of minorities and immigrants. The status qua contra-soft violence hypothesizes a situation Featuring by the soft security which differ essentially from the concepts relative to the group’s, the community’s and state’s security, then describes a being case respond to the physical needs, preserves the human dignity, because the concept of the soft security in its essence is the opposite of fear and has the will of become free from need(poverty) and fear (security). The idea of rights in the concept of soft safety based on considering that the human rights are for every one without differentiation, and these rights are related to the human value, and this is the deep-rooted truth in each human being, can’t be avoided or violated, but it need –as we mentioned before- national systems to be personified

الكلمات المفتاحية

citizenship, equality, discrimination, soft violence's , soft security