social and human sciences review مجلة العلوم الاجتماعية والانسانية
Volume 11, Numéro 23, Pages 1-32

Ameen Al-rihani On Statecraft In Imamic Yemen

Authors : Elizabeth Bishop .

Abstract

ﻴﻬﺩﻑ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﻴﺒﺴﺘﻤﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﻥ ﻤﺭﻤﻭﻗﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ، ﻫﻤﺎ :ﺇﺩﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺴﻌﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺍﺴﺘﻘﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﺎ ﻭﺃﻟﺒﻴﺭﺕ ﺤﻭﺭﺍﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺍﺴﺘﻘﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺭﻴﻁﺎﻨﻴﺎ . ﻓﺎﻷﻭل ﺭﻜﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻁﻘﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ؛ ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻨﺸﻐﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻨﺼﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﻬﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﻤﺒﺭﺍﻁﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ .ﻭﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﺫﻟﻙ، ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻴﺘﻘﻔﻰ ﺃﺴﻔﺎﺭ ﻤﻬﺎﺠﺭ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺤﺎﻨﻲ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺤل ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺭﻴﻥ .ﺇﻥ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺤﺎﻨﻲ ﻟﻔﻥ ﺤﻜﻡ ﺍﻹﻤﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﻭﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺇﺩﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺴﻌﻴﺩ ﻭﺃﻟﺒﻴﺭﺕ ﺤﻭﺭﺍﻨﻲ. ﻭﺒﺎﻟﻭﻗﻭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﻤﺘﺄﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﺼﻭﺹ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺤﺎﻨﻲ، ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺭﺠﻭﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺯﺍﺌﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ، ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻴﻜﺸﻑ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺭﺍﺒﻁﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺭﻭﻗﺭﺍﻁﻲ ﺨﻼل ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻤﺎﻤﺔ .ﻭﻴﺨﻠﺹ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻀﻊ ﻟﻺﻤﺎﻡ ﻴﺤﻴﻰ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﺎ ﺒﻘﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺭﺍﺙ ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻟﻌﻘﻭﺩ .ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ، ﻓﻘﺩ ﺃﻜﺩ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﺎ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻔﻀﻴل ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻤﺎﻡ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻅﻬﻭﺭ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺠﻴﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻨﻴﺔ . The aim of this article is to assess some epistemological and political ideals from two prominent scholars of the Arab mashreq, Edward Said (based in the US) and Albert Hourani (based in the UK). Said emphasized the contributions of Arab speaker to the studies of the region; while Hourani was more concerned with the “politics of the notables” of the late Ottoman empire. This article follows the travels of the Lebanese emigrant Amin al-Rihani through the Arab peninsula during the early twentieth century. His analysis of the statecraft of Imamic Yemen offers a means to assess Said’s and Hourani’s prescriptions. Acknowledging the challenges implicit in a close reading of Rihani’s texts, and turning to other visitors to the area, this article notes the unbounded nature of justice and the bureaucratic process during the Imamate. This article brings about an assessment of the the significance of the Imam Yehia’s position under the Ottoman tanzimat, and the legacy this left for the following decades by noting ways in which the forms of political authority the Imam favored, reappeared among the succeeding generations of Yemeni administrators.

Keywords

ﺃﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺤﺎني. ﺤﻜﻡ ﺍﻹﻤﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ. ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺭﻭﻗﺭﺍﻁﻲ . ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ. اﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻨﻴﺔ . Ottoman empire. Amin al-Rihani .Imamic Yemen