social and human sciences review مجلة العلوم الاجتماعية والانسانية
Volume 11, Numéro 23, Pages 85-112

ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺍﺌﺭ: ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻭﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻠﻭل

الكاتب : ﺠﻤﺎل ﺠﻌﻴل .

الملخص

ﻴﻬﺩﻑ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺒﺭﺍﺯ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺠﻌل ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺘﺩﺨل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻥ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﺤﺘﻭﺍﺀ ﺃﺯﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻥ .ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻡ ﻤﻅﺎﻫﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺸﺭﺍﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺭ ﻤﺴﺎﻜﻥ ﻻﺌﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺓ، ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻥ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺇﻗﺒﺎل ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﻕ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻁﺭ ﻤﺜل ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻭﻙ ﻭﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ،ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻨﻁﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﻭﺘﺄﺨﺭ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ. ، ﻭﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻁﺭﻗﺎ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ .ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻨﻭﻋﺕ ﺼﻴﻎ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺨل، ﺇﺫ ، ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ ﺸﻤﻠﺕ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺇﻋﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ ﻟﻸﺴﺭ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺨل، ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ ﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻀﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﻟﺤﺜﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻪ ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﺨل . ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻭﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻭﺍﺠﻬﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺤﻘﻘﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ، ﺘﻤﺜﻠﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺘﻨﻭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﻕ، ﻤﻤﺎ ﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻑ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺩﺓ ﺃﺯﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺍﺌﺭ. This study aims to highlight the causes which led the state intervene in the housing market. Among the reasons of this intervention: the existence of social groups which cannot afford to build, buy or lease a decent house in such a free market economy, the lack of private investors enthusiasm to invest in this sector because of risks, especially high interest rate risk, the lack of economic feasibility of projects and delays in their completion. This study reached the result that public authorities can apply many direct and indirect ways to fulfill their housing policy goals and provide decent housing for low income social groups. Among these ways are: rent price fixing, providing loans with low interest rate for poor low income classes, creating tax and financial incentives to private sector and encouraging it to invest in the housing sector.

الكلمات المفتاحية

ﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻥ . ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ .ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺘﻨﻭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﻕ، .ﺃﺯﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺍﺌﺭ. the housing market. public authorities . the housing sector.