آفاق سينمائية
Volume 7, Numéro 1, Pages 163-184

ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟحداثي ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻨﻤﺎﺋﻴﺔ ( فيلم 300 ﻟﺰﺍﻙ ﺷﻨﺎﻳﺪﺭ ﺃﻧـــﻤﻮﺫﺟﺎ)

الكاتب : مراح مراد .

الملخص

/ﻳﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﺑﺤﺜﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻮﻥ ) ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻠﻲ ﺳﻴﻨﻤﺎﺋﻲ (، ﺍﻱ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻛﻞ ﻓﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻮﻥ، ﺍﻭ ﺑﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ،ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﻦ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻭ ﺃﻳﻦ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﻦ، ﻭﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻣﻬﻢ، ﺗﺤﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻫﺎﺫﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻳﻴﻦ، ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﻋﺮﺟﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ،ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ :ﻧﻘﻄﺔ، ﺧﻂ، ﺷﻜﻞ، ﻛﺘﻠﺔ، ﻓﺮﺍﻍ .ﺇﻃﺎﺭ، ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ، ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ، ﻟﺰﺍﻙ ﺷﻨﺎﻳﺪﺭ ﻛﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ300ﻭﻛﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻟﺒﺤﺜﻨﺎ ﺃﺧﺬﻧﺎ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻛﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻢ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻰ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺳﻴﻨﻤﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻭﺟﺪﻧﺎ ﺗﺸﺎﺑﻪ (storyboard) ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﺕ، ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻭﺻﻞ ﺑﺤﺜﻨﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﻲ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺋﻲ .ﻓﻲ ﻋﺼﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﺍﺛﺔ ﻧﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻨﻤﺎﺋﻲ، ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻨﻤﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﻲ، ﻭﺩﻭﺭ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻞ .ﻓﻲ ﺑﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻄﺔ ،ﺗﻮﺻﻠﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻭﺟﺪﻧﺎ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﺎ ﻓﻨﻴﺎ ﻭﺟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎ .ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺮﺝ ﺧﻴﺎﻟﻪ ﻟﺒﻨﺎء ﻟﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﻴﻠﻤﻴﺔ ،ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ : ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﺭﻭﺍﺋﻲ، ﻓﻦ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻠﻲ، ﻟﻘﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﺩﺭ،ﻟﻮﺣﺔ، ﻟﻮﻥ،ﺣﺠﻢ، ﺑﻨﻴﺔ، ﺯﺍﻙ ﺷﻨﺎﻳﺪﺭ،ﺻﻮﺭﺓ :Abstract Our research starts from the problem of overlapping arts (plastic / cinematic), ie the limits of each art, or in other words where the cinema starts and where the formation ends, points of difference and convergence between the arts, and considering the topic is important, we talked about the common points between these two visual arts, and there for ewe limp On the elements of the plastic construction of: point, line, shape, mass, vacuum, frame, unity, balance. As a sample of our research, we took Zach Schneider's film 300 as a model. This film was about a work of art and we found a great similarity between the fine drawings in the magazine and the footage, which led us to the conclusion that the art is considered as a reference in the construction of the shot in the feature film in the Post modern Era. The aim of this research is to find the relationship between plastic art and cinematography, how cinema art invests from plastic art, and the role of plastic elements in building the shot. We have reached through this study to an important result, where we found that the painting is a technical and aesthete tic reference from which the director draws his imagination to build a film shot. Keywords: feature film, plastic art, clamping, cadre, painting, color, size, structure, zack schneider, portrait

الكلمات المفتاحية

ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﺭﻭﺍﺋﻲ، ﻓﻦ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻠﻲ، ﻟﻘﻄﺔ، ﻛﺎﺩﺭ،ﻟﻮﺣﺔ، ﻟﻮﻥ،ﺣﺠﻢ، ﺑﻨﻴﺔ، ﺯﺍﻙ ﺷﻨﺎﻳﺪﺭ،ﺻﻮﺭﺓ