مجلة بحوث الإدارة والاقتصاد


Description

Management & Economics Research Journal.


4

Volumes

12

Numéros

95

Articles


Household Effective Demand for Electricity in Ghana: Analysis and Implication for Tariffs

Quartey Jonathan,  Ametorwotia Wisdom,  Laari Prosper, 
2022-04-03

Résumé: - Purpose: Outcomes of most developing country projects to secure inclusive growth through electricity provision appear to hinge on available information regarding households’ response to electricity. To provide the needed information for policy, this study assessed the determinants of household electricity demand and estimated the mean willingness to pay for electricity by households in Ghana. - Design/Methodology/Approach: The study used a Contingent Valuation modeling procedure involving over 3000 households, to derive an effective demand function for electricity in Ghana. This was done through a national household survey. A mathematical programming analytical procedure was employed, to fully account for the block pricing tariff system used in Ghana. - Findings: The study found that Ghanaian households are willing to pay a monthly mean electricity tariff of 50.40 Ghana cedis (US$11.56), which is lower than the average monthly tariff of 73.67 Ghana cedis (US$16.90) paid by households. Thus the average tariff paid by households monthly is 46% higher than the mean willingness to pay. The study also found that the highest impact determinants of demand for electricity in Ghana were affordability of tariffs, usage of electrical appliances and availability of electricity respectively. - Originality/Value: This study employs a mathematical programming procedure to determine the mean willingness to pay for electricity in Ghana. This procedure is theoretically more robust than the often used differential calculus approach, since it incorporates the block pricing of electricity in Ghana, which the calculus approach ignores. Also, it uses the largest and most inclusive known sample, specifically designed to elicit households’ willingness to pay for electricity in Ghana. The study is also unique in its findings.

Mots clés: Contingent valuation ; Demand for electricity ; Electricity tariffs ; Ghana ; Households ; Willingness to pay


Trade Balance, Exchange Rate and Money Supply in Nigeria: Growth Implications and Lesson for African Countries

Osinusi Kunle Bankole,  Lawal Nurudeen Abiodun,  Bisiriyu Sodiq Olaide, 
2022-04-23

Résumé: The significance of trade in the development of nations made this study examined the impact of trade balance, exchange rate, and money supply on economic growth with reference to Nigeria economy and as a lesson for other African countries. The study relies on the Mundell-Fleming BOP model for its framework while the study used secondary time series data obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin from 1981 to 2020. The ARDL cointegration of the least square was adopted and our result showed a long-run relationship among trade balance, exchange rate, money supply, interest rate, inflation rate and economic growth in Nigeria. The study thus concluded that oil trade balance is the main driver of Nigeria economic growth and as a result, we suggested that to ensure economic growth in Nigeria and other African countries; the government should strategize on policies to develop trade in the non-oil sector; also the monetary authorities should formulate frameworks towards making money supply growth enhancer, and stabilization of the exchange rate for domestic countries to gain more from trade by enhancing the flow of credit to the real and exporting sector towards setting the economies on the track of expansion.

Mots clés: Trade Balance ; Exchange Rate ; Money Supply ; Economic Growth ; Mundell-Fleming ; AutoRegressive Distributed Lag ARDL


Crafting Innovativeness for Graduate Entrepreneurship Development in East Africa: Are Graduates Innovators or Imitators?

Nade Paschal, 
2022-06-06

Résumé: Innovation is a central determinant that contributes to entrepreneurs’ pursuits of opportunities. It is the vehicle that carries the means to concur market and successful establishment of an enterprise. This study aimed at assessing graduates’ innovativeness for entrepreneurship development by employing a cross-sectional research design. A sample size of 124 was selected from a population of Masters's students specializing in science subjects originating from East African countries. Objective one and two were analyzed descriptively via per cent and frequencies while objective three was analyzed through inferential statistics where one sample T-test was employed for assessing the difference between innovation developed and innovation advanced to markets. The findings indicate that for all forms of innovation the level of innovation is relatively low since all the ratings were below 40 per cent. Similarly, the innovation advanced to the markets were respectively low compared to innovation developed. It is concluded that the level of innovation is limited among first-degree graduates specialized in science subjects in East African countries and the number of innovations advanced to the market for entrepreneurship development is relatively low compared to innovation developed.This call for a review of the innovation process development in higher learning education system. In addition, recasting of enabling environment for innovation development is apparently needed.

Mots clés: Innovation ; Graduates ; Higher learning institution ; Entrepreneurship


The Contextual Dimensions of Informal Economy and Entrepreneurship

Banwo Adeleke, 
2022-07-01

Résumé: This study investigates the global dynamics of informal economy and the need for the coexistence of both the informal and formal economy. Developing and developed countries are beset with various forms of social and economic problems such as unemployment, poverty levels, informal jobs, and global issues. Informal Entrepreneurship remains a focal means to reduce unemployment and create jobs in many economies. Using the Institutional theory, the dynamics of informal economy and entrepreneurship was investigated using a qualitative approach and secondary data from the International Labour Organization and Women in Informal Employment:Globalizing and Organizing datasets. The findings depict the need to ensure that both the informal and formal economy coexist well rather than merging them due to their interwoven nature . This calls for the adoption of a system and holistic perspective for studying facets of informal-formal entrepreneurship in different contexts Informal economy and informal entrepreneurship are essential for the reduction of global unemployment and development of innovation in the value chain in their contexts. Globally, informal economy and informal entrepreneurship provides safety nets, source of livelihood and pay informal levies that contribute to economic growth and development. The study shows how informal entrepreneurship contributes to their business environment. The contextual evidence from the literature justify the necessity for informal entrepreneurship and economy due to interplay of imperfect market conditions, institutional voids, entrepreneurial behavior, and local business dynamics.

Mots clés: Context ; Entreprenurial Behavior ; Informal Economy ; Entrepreneurship ; Informal levies ; Institutional Theory ; Innovation ; Unemployment


DETERMINANTS OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO SUNK-COST FALLACY: A NIGERIAN CASE STUDY

Biala Musa Ilias, 
2022-07-21

Résumé: A general economic principle is that when evaluating the costs of a decision, sunk costs should not be considered and that the decision maker should consider only those costs that are incurred as a result of making that decision. However, both anecdotal and empirical evidence has shown that when making decisions, people are influenced by sunk costs, thereby committing the sunk-cost fallacy. A corpus of research has established that this fallacy occurs among different nations and cultures to differing extents or degrees. However, none of the previous research was conducted on Nigerians. This study, therefore, investigates whether Nigerians, too, commit this fallacy and then identify factors that affect Nigerians’ susceptibility to the fallacy. Employing a binary logit model, it was found that about 49 per cent of the respondents to questions based on a decision-making vignette committed the sunk-cost fallacy. The results also showed that locus of cost responsibility (whether the cost was borne by the decision maker or another person on behalf of the decision maker) and ethnicity (whether the decision maker is Yoruba or not) were significant determinants of susceptibility to sunk-cost fallacy. This suggests that in Nigeria sunk-cost fallacy is intrapersonal and more prevalent among the Yorubas than among the Hausas or the Igbos. Therefore, sunk-cost fallacy is ubiquitous and more likely in personal decisions than decisions made on behalf of others.

Mots clés: Nigeria ; Self-justification theory ; Sunk cost ; Sunk-cost effect ; Sunk-cost fallacy



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